Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Depict the electron configurations for V2+, V3+, and Co3+. Use orbital box diagrams and the noble gas notation. Are any of the ions paramagnetic? If so, give the number of unpaired electrons.

Interpretation Introduction


The electronic configurations for (V2+), (V3+), and (Co3+) ions and orbital box diagrams and the noble gas notation and its paramagnetic properties have to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons (e-) of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

Paramagnetic: The Paramagnetic properties are due to the presence of unpaired electrons, and from the realignment of the electron paths caused by the external magnetic field.

Diamagnetic properties: In diamagnetic materials all the electron are paired so there is no permanent net magnetic moment per atom.

  • Electronic configuration for (V2+) and (V3+) systems:
    1. 1. The (spdf) and orbital box notations, assign the (5) electrons for (V2+) to orbitals based on the order of filling.
    2. 2. The noble gas notation: The first (5) electrons are identified by the symbol of (Ar) it is a one of noble gas. The remaining (5) electrons are assigning to the 3d and (4s) shells. Hence the Hund’s rule is followed in the box notation.

Electronic configuration of Vanadium (V): It has two electrons in the (4s) orbitals and three electrons in 3d orbitals, the electrons filling method presented below.

AtomicnumberofVanadium(V)= 23spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ar]3d34s2Orbitalboxnotation       = [Ar]3d34s2

Electronic configuration of Vanadium (II) ion: When (V) was oxidized to (V2+) ions, it lost for two electrons in outermost (4s) orbitals.

  spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ar]3d34s0Orbitalboxnotation       = [Ar]3d34s0

Electronic configuration of Vanadium (III) ion: Again the Vanadium (III) ion is formed by removing even one electron from Vanadium (II) ion of d-orbitals as shown below,

    spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ar]3d24s0Orbitalboxnotation       = [Ar]3d24s0

  • Electronic configuration for (Co3+) system:
    1. 1

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