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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 7.5, Problem 2RC
Textbook Problem
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Locate the elements C, N, Si, and P in the periodic table. Based on general trends, identify the elements in this group with the highest and lowest ionization energy.

  • (a) C highest, P lowest
  • (b) C highest, Si lowest
  • (c) N highest Si lowest
  • (d) C lowest N highest

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The highest and lowest ionization energy should be identified given the four different elements of ( C, N, Si, P ) atoms.

Concept Introduction:

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Electronegativity: It is measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. For example the (F) fluorine is more electronegative element is assigned a value f (4.0) and values range down to cesium (CS) and francium (Fr) which are the largest electronegative at (0.7) range, generally the Pauling scale is used to analyze the electronegative range (or) properties.

Increase and decrease electronegativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Explanation of Solution

Reasons for correct options:

(c). Analyzing for highest ionization energy:

The highest ionization energies for given four atoms are C(4620 kJ/mol) <N(4578 kJ/mol)<Si(3231 kJ/mol) and P(2912 kJ/mol) here carbon (C) atom having highest ionization energy when compare to the other atoms.

We conclude the main group S-block and P-block elements first ionization energies generally increase across a period and decrease down a group (see the periodic table). The trend across a period corresponds to the increase in effective nuclear charge Z* , with increasing atomic number. As Z* increase across a period the energy required to remove an electron increase.

The respective electron removed is increasingly father from the nucleus and thus less strongly, the ionization order of given periodic elements of

Nhighestionizationenergy and

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Chapter 7 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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