Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

This textbook places lanthanum directly below yttrium in the periodic table. However, there is a minor controversy about this in the scientific community, and other periodic tables locate lanthanum at the front of the lanthanide series and place lutetium directly below yttrium. Does the electronic configuration argue for the placement of La or Lu below Y? Explain.

Interpretation Introduction


The electron configuration for the placement of La or Lu below Y has to be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

General electronic configuration of d-block: These elements having common formula (n-1)d1–10 ns1–2. The (n–1) stands for the inner d orbitals which may have one to ten electrons and the outermost ns orbital may have one or two electrons.

General electronic configuration of f-block: The general the electronic configuration of these elements is (n-2)f1-14(n-1)d1–10ns1–2. The two rows of elements present at the bottom of the periodic table are called the (4f) series or lanthanides and actinides (5f). They are also called inner transition elements.


The electronic configuration of yttrium (Y)

  Atomicnumber (Z)ofyttrium (Y)= 39spdfwith noble gas notation=[Kr]4d15s2Orbitalboxnotation       = [Kr]5d15s2

The electronic configuration of lanthanide (La)

  Atomicnumber (Z)oflanthanide (La)= 57spdfwith noble gas notation=[Xe]5d16s2Orbitalboxnotation       = [Xe]5d16s2

The electronic con

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