Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

In hemoglobin, iron can be in the iron(II) or iron(III) state. Are either of these iron ions paramagnetic?

Interpretation Introduction


The irons present in hemoglobin is either (Fe2+) or (Fe3+) state, so predict the paramagnetic property.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

Paramagnetic: The Paramagnetic properties are due to the presence of unpaired electrons, and from the realignment of the electron paths caused by the external magnetic field.

Diamagnetic properties: In diamagnetic materials all the electron are paired so there is no permanent net magnetic moment per atom.

General electronic configuration of d-block: These elements having common formula (n-1)d1–10 ns1–2. The (n–1) stands for the inner d orbitals which may have one to ten electrons and the outermost ns orbital may have one or two electrons.


Let us consider the electronic configurations of (Fe)(Fe2+) and (Fe3+)  ions orbital filling methods are discussed below.

Electronic configuration for (Fe)(Fe2+) and (Fe3+) systems:

  1. 1. The (spdf) and orbital box notations, assign the (6) electrons for (Fe2+) to orbitals based on the order of filling.
  2. 2. The noble gas notation: The first (18) electrons are identified by the symbol of the argon (Ar) it is a one of noble gas. The remaining (8) electrons are assigned to the (3d) and (4s) shells. Thus, the Hund’s rule is followed in the box notation.

Electronic configuration of Iron atom: The Iron (Fe) has eight electrons; in the (4s) orbitals  two electrons are occupied and six electrons in 3d orbitals, the electrons filling method presented below.

  Atomicnumber (Z)ofIron(Fe)=26spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ar]3d64s2Orbitalboxnotation       = [Ar]3d64s2

Electronic configuration of (Fe2+)ions: When (Fe) was oxidized to (Fe2+) ions, it lost for two electrons in outermost (4s) orbitals.

  Atomicnumber (Z)ofIron(Fe)=26Loss of two electrons in (Fe2+) ions=262=24spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ar]3d64s0Orbitalboxnotation       = [Ar]

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