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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 7.6, Problem 2Q
Textbook Problem
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In hemoglobin, iron can be in the iron(II) or iron(III) state. Are either of these iron ions paramagnetic?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The irons present in hemoglobin is either (Fe2+) or (Fe3+) state, so predict the paramagnetic property.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

Paramagnetic: The Paramagnetic properties are due to the presence of unpaired electrons, and from the realignment of the electron paths caused by the external magnetic field.

Diamagnetic properties: In diamagnetic materials all the electron are paired so there is no permanent net magnetic moment per atom.

General electronic configuration of d-block: These elements having common formula (n-1)d1–10 ns1–2. The (n–1) stands for the inner d orbitals which may have one to ten electrons and the outermost ns orbital may have one or two electrons.

Explanation of Solution

Let us consider the electronic configurations of (Fe)(Fe2+) and (Fe3+)  ions orbital filling methods are discussed below.

Electronic configuration for (Fe)(Fe2+) and (Fe3+) systems:

  1. 1. The (spdf) and orbital box notations, assign the (6) electrons for (Fe2+) to orbitals based on the order of filling.
  2. 2. The noble gas notation: The first (18) electrons are identified by the symbol of the argon (Ar) it is a one of noble gas. The remaining (8) electrons are assigned to the (3d) and (4s) shells. Thus, the Hund’s rule is followed in the box notation.

Electronic configuration of Iron atom: The Iron (Fe) has eight electrons; in the (4s) orbitals  two electrons are occupied and six electrons in 3d orbitals, the electrons filling method presented below.

  Atomicnumber (Z)ofIron(Fe)=26spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ar]3d64s2Orbitalboxnotation       = [Ar]3d64s2

Electronic configuration of (Fe2+)ions: When (Fe) was oxidized to (Fe2+) ions, it lost for two electrons in outermost (4s) orbitals.

  Atomicnumber (Z)ofIron(Fe)=26Loss of two electrons in (Fe2+) ions=262=24spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ar]3d64s0Orbitalboxnotation       = [Ar]

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Chapter 7 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Ch. 7.4 - 2. Which of the following ions has the largest...Ch. 7.4 - Which of the following species is most...Ch. 7.5 - Without looking at the figures for the periodic...Ch. 7.5 - What is the trend in sizes of the ions K+, S2, and...Ch. 7.5 - Locate the elements C, N, Si, and P in the...Ch. 7.6 - Give the electron configurations for iron and the...Ch. 7.6 - In hemoglobin, iron can be in the iron(II) or...Ch. 7.6 - Why are copper atoms (radius = 128 pm) slightly...Ch. 7.6 - In hemoglobin, the iron is enclosed by the...Ch. 7.6 - 1. Which of the following is an incorrect...Ch. 7.6 - 2. 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(a) Which...Ch. 7 - Compare the elements B. Al, C, and Si. (a) Which...Ch. 7 - Explain each answer briefly. (a) Place the...Ch. 7 - Explain each answer briefly. (a) Rank the...Ch. 7 - Identify the element that corresponds to each of...Ch. 7 - Identify the element that corresponds to each of...Ch. 7 - Explain why the photoelectron spectra of hydrogen...Ch. 7 - Sketch the major features (number of peaks and...Ch. 7 - These questions are not designated as to type or...Ch. 7 - The deep blue color of sapphires comes from the...Ch. 7 - Using an orbital box diagram and noble gas...Ch. 7 - The rare earth elements, or lanthanides, commonly...Ch. 7 - A neutral atom has two electrons with n = 1, eight...Ch. 7 - Element 109, now named meitnerium (in honor of the...Ch. 7 - Which of the following is not an allowable set of...Ch. 7 - A possible excited state for the H atom has an...Ch. 7 - The magnet in the following photo is made from...Ch. 7 - Name the element corresponding to each...Ch. 7 - Arrange the following atoms in order of increasing...Ch. 7 - Rank the following in order of increasing...Ch. 7 - Answer the questions below about the elements A...Ch. 7 - Answer (he following questions about the elements...Ch. 7 - Which of the following ions are unlikely to be...Ch. 7 - Place the following ions in order of decreasing...Ch. 7 - Answer each of the following questions: (a) Of the...Ch. 7 - The following are isoelectronic species: Cl, K+,...Ch. 7 - Compare the elements Na. B. Al, and C with regard...Ch. 7 - Two elements in the second transition series (Y...Ch. 7 - The configuration for an element is given here....Ch. 7 - The configuration of an element is given here. (a)...Ch. 7 - Answer the questions below about the elements A...Ch. 7 - Answer the questions below concerning ground state...Ch. 7 - Nickel(II) formate [Ni(HCO2)2] is widely used as a...Ch. 7 - Spinets are solids with the general formula M2+...Ch. 7 - The following questions use concepts from this and...Ch. 7 - Which ions in the following list are not likely to...Ch. 7 - Answer the following questions about first...Ch. 7 - The ionization of the hydrogen atom can be...Ch. 7 - Compare the configurations below with two...Ch. 7 - The bond lengths in Cl2, Br2, and I2 are 200, 228,...Ch. 7 - Write electron configurations to show the first...Ch. 7 - What is the trend in ionization energy when...Ch. 7 - (a) Explain why the sizes of atoms change when...Ch. 7 - Which of the following elements has the greatest...Ch. 7 - What arguments would you use to convince another...Ch. 7 - Explain why the first ionization energy of Ca is...Ch. 7 - The energies of the orbitals in many elements have...Ch. 7 - The ionization energies for the removal of the...Ch. 7 - Using your knowledge of the trends in element...Ch. 7 - The densities (in g/cm3) of elements in Croups 6B,...Ch. 7 - The discovery of two new elements (atomic numbers...Ch. 7 - Explain why the reaction of calcium and fluorine...Ch. 7 - Thionyl chloride. 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