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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Show all possible resonance structures for each of the following molecules or ions:

  1. (a) nitrate ion, NO3
  2. (b) nitric acid, HNO3
  3. (c) dinitrogen monoxide (nitrous oxide, laughing gas), N2O (where the bonding is in the order N—N—O)

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The resonance structure for the given molecule should be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Resonance structure:

  • Sometimes the chemical bonding of a molecule cannot be represented using a single Lewis structure. In these cases, the chemical bonding are described by delocalization of electrons and is known as resonance.
  • In some molecules, there is possibility of more than one Lewis structure where all the structures are equally acceptable. One of the acceptable Lewis structures of these molecules is called resonance structure. All the possible resonance structures are imaginary whereas the resonance hybrid is real.
  • These structures will differ only in the arrangement of the electrons not in the relative position of the atomic nuclei.
  • While drawing resonance structure of a molecule some rules should be followed where the position, over whole charge and chemical framework remains intact. Also only π and nonbonding electron has been moved in all the three resonance structures.

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule is drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

Explanation

The Lewis structure for given molecule is as follows,

  

The possible resonance structure for the given molecule is drawn by delocalizing the lone pair electrons above oxygen and the...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The resonance structure for the given molecule should be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Resonance structure:

  • Sometimes the chemical bonding of a molecule cannot be represented using a single Lewis structure. In these cases, the chemical bonding are described by delocalization of electrons and is known as resonance.
  • In some molecules, there is possibility of more than one Lewis structure where all the structures are equally acceptable. One of the acceptable Lewis structures of these molecules is called resonance structure. All the possible resonance structures are imaginary whereas the resonance hybrid is real.
  • These structures will differ only in the arrangement of the electrons not in the relative position of the atomic nuclei.
  • While drawing resonance structure of a molecule some rules should be followed where the position, over whole charge and chemical framework remains intact. Also only π and nonbonding electron has been moved in all the three resonance structures.

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule is drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The resonance structure for the given molecule should be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Resonance structure:

  • Sometimes the chemical bonding of a molecule cannot be represented using a single Lewis structure. In these cases, the chemical bonding are described by delocalization of electrons and is known as resonance.
  • In some molecules, there is possibility of more than one Lewis structure where all the structures are equally acceptable. One of the acceptable Lewis structures of these molecules is called resonance structure. All the possible resonance structures are imaginary whereas the resonance hybrid is real.
  • These structures will differ only in the arrangement of the electrons not in the relative position of the atomic nuclei.
  • While drawing resonance structure of a molecule some rules should be followed where the position, over whole charge and chemical framework remains intact. Also only π and nonbonding electron has been moved in all the three resonance structures.

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule is drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

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