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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Which of the following molecules is(are) not polar? For each polar molecule, indicate the direction of polarity—that is, which is the negative end and which is the positive end.

  1. (a) BCl3
  2. (b) CF4
  3. (c) PCl3
  4. (d) GeH4

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Check whether the given molecule is polar or not. If the molecule is polar then the direction of polarity has to be indicated.

Concept Introduction:

Polar molecules are the molecules having a positive and negative end and so there will be a charge separation.

A polar molecule is a molecule where the polar bonds are asymmetrically arranged (the dipoles do not cancel)

A nonpolar molecule is a molecule with no polar bonds or a molecule where the polar bonds are symmetrically arranged.

In polar molecule the charge separation occurred with respect to the difference in electronegativity of atoms in the molecule.

Direction of dipole moment in a molecule is can be represented as follows,

images

Different types of molecules and their geometry in accordance with the VSEPR theory are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

Explanation

The structure of BCl3 is,

This molecule has a trigonal planar geometry. The direction dipole in the molecule is represented below,

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Check whether the given molecule is polar or not. If the molecule is polar then the direction of polarity has to be indicated.

Concept Introduction:

Polar molecules are the molecules having a positive and negative end and so there will be a charge separation.

A polar molecule is a molecule where the polar bonds are asymmetrically arranged (the dipoles do not cancel)

A nonpolar molecule is a molecule with no polar bonds or a molecule where the polar bonds are symmetrically arranged.

In polar molecule the charge separation occurred with respect to the difference in electronegativity of atoms in the molecule.

Direction of dipole moment in a molecule is can be represented as follows,

images

Different types of molecules and their geometry in accordance with the VSEPR theory are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Check whether the given molecule is polar or not. If the molecule is polar then the direction of polarity has to be indicated.

Concept Introduction:

Polar molecules are the molecules having a positive and negative end (dipole) and so there will be a charge separation.

A polar molecule is a molecule where the polar bonds are asymmetrically arranged (the dipoles do not cancel)

A nonpolar molecule is a molecule with no polar bonds or a molecule where the polar bonds are symmetrically arranged.

In polar molecule the charge separation occurred with respect to the difference in electronegativity of atoms in the molecule.

Direction of dipole in a molecule is can be represented as follows,

images

Different types of molecules and their geometry in accordance with the VSEPR theory are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Check whether the given molecule is polar or not. If the molecule is polar then the direction of polarity has to be indicated.

Concept Introduction:

Polar molecules are the molecules having a positive and negative end and so there will be a charge separation.

A polar molecule is a molecule where the polar bonds are asymmetrically arranged (the dipoles do not cancel)

A nonpolar molecule is a molecule with no polar bonds or a molecule where the polar bonds are symmetrically arranged.

In polar molecule the charge separation occurred with respect to the difference in electronegativity of atoms in the molecule.

Direction of dipole moment in a molecule is can be represented as follows,

images

Different types of molecules and their geometry in accordance with the VSEPR theory are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

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