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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 8, Problem 47PS
Textbook Problem
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Consider the nitrogen-oxygen bond lengths in NO2+, NO2, and NO3 In which ion is the herd predicted to be longest. In which is it predicted to be the shortest? Explain briefly.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The ions which have the highest and shortest NO length from the given list have to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Fractional bond order: The molecules which have resonance structures possess fractional bond order.

Bond order between any bonded pair of atoms X and Y:

Bondorder=numberofsharedpairsinallXYbondsnumberofXYlinksinthemoleculeorion

Bond length is inversely proportional to the bond order.

A higher bond order results in a shorter bond for a given pair of atoms.

Explanation of Solution

Bond order for the compounds having resonance structures can be calculated by the general equation:[If the bond pair have the atoms X and Y]

Bondorder=numberofsharedpairsinallXYbondsnumberofXYlinksinthemoleculeorion

Bond order of NO bonds in NO2 is calculated as follows:

Bondorder=numberofsharedpairsinallXYbondsnumberofXYlinksinthemoleculeorion

In NO2, one NO single bond and one N=O double bond is present.

The number of shared pairs is three and there are two nitrogen-oxygen links.

Bondorder=32=1.5

Bond order of NO bonds in NO2+ is calculated as follows:

Bondorder=numberofsharedpairsinallXYbondsnumberofXYlinksinthemoleculeorion

In NO2+, two N=O double bonds are present

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Chapter 8 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Ch. 8.4 - Draw resonance structures for the bicarbonate ion,...Ch. 8.4 - 1. For which of the following species, SO32−, NO+,...Ch. 8.4 - 2. What are the formal charges on nitrogen and...Ch. 8.5 - Sketch the Lewis structures for CIF2+ and CIF2....Ch. 8.5 - 1. Draw a Lewis structure for HOMO. Are there any...Ch. 8.5 - 2. Draw a Lewis structure for the...Ch. 8.5 - 1. In which of the following sulfur species, SF2,...Ch. 8.5 - 2. How many lone pairs of electrons are on the...Ch. 8.6 - What is the shape of the dichloromethane (CH2C12)...Ch. 8.6 - Give the electron-pair geometry and molecular...Ch. 8.6 - Draw the Lewis structure for lCl2, and then decide...Ch. 8.6 - Use Lewis structures and the VSEPR model to...Ch. 8.6 - Which of the following species has...Ch. 8.6 - What is the molecular geometry of the SbF52 ion?...Ch. 8.6 - What is the approximate ClCCl bond angle in...Ch. 8.6 - 4. What is the molecular geometry of N2O (where...Ch. 8.7 - Draw the resonance structures for SCN. What are...Ch. 8.7 - For each of the following molecules, decide...Ch. 8.7 - 1. Which bond among those listed below is the most...Ch. 8.7 - 2. Which of the following best describes the...Ch. 8.7 - Three resonance forms can be drawn for the...Ch. 8.8 - The electrostatic potential surface for SOCl2 is...Ch. 8.8 - Using the bond dissociation enthalpies in Table...Ch. 8.8 - 1. Which of the hydrogen halides is the most...Ch. 8.8 - Which of the molecules listed below is nonpolar?...Ch. 8.9 - 1. Which of the following species has the longest...Ch. 8.9 - 2. Which of the following species has the largest...Ch. 8.9 - 3. Use bond dissociation enthalpies to estimate...Ch. 8 - Give the periodic group number and number of...Ch. 8 - Give the periodic group number and number of...Ch. 8 - For elements in Groups 4A-7A of the periodic...Ch. 8 - Which of the following elements are capable of...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Show all possible resonance structures for each of...Ch. 8 - Show all possible resonance structures for each of...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Determine the formal charge on each atom in the...Ch. 8 - Determine the formal charge on each atom in the...Ch. 8 - Determine the formal charge on each atom in the...Ch. 8 - Determine the formal charge on each atom in the...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - The following molecules or ions all have two...Ch. 8 - The following molecules or ions all have three...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Give approximate values for the indicated bond...Ch. 8 - Give approximate values for the indicated bond...Ch. 8 - Phenylalanine is one of the natural amino acids...Ch. 8 - Acetylacetone has the structure shown here....Ch. 8 - For each pair of bonds, indicate the more polar...Ch. 8 - For each of the bonds listed below, tell which...Ch. 8 - Urea, (NH2)2CO, is used in plastics and...Ch. 8 - Considering both formal charges and bond...Ch. 8 - Considering both formal charge and bond...Ch. 8 - Three resonance structures are possible for...Ch. 8 - Three resonance structures are possible for the...Ch. 8 - Compare the electron dot structures of the...Ch. 8 - Compare the electron dot structures of the...Ch. 8 - The chemistry of the nitrite ion and HNO2: (a) Two...Ch. 8 - Draw the resonance structures for the formate ion,...Ch. 8 - Consider the following molecules: (a) H2O (b) NH3...Ch. 8 - Consider the following molecules: (a) CH4 (b)...Ch. 8 - Which of the following molecules is(are) polar?...Ch. 8 - Which of the following molecules is(are) not...Ch. 8 - Give the bond order for each bond in the following...Ch. 8 - Give the bond order for each bond in the following...Ch. 8 - In each pair of bonds, predict which is shorter....Ch. 8 - In each pair of bonds, predict which is shorter....Ch. 8 - Consider the nitrogen-oxygen bond lengths in NO2+,...Ch. 8 - Compare the carbon-oxygen bond lengths in the...Ch. 8 - Consider the carbon-oxygen bond in formaldehyde...Ch. 8 - Compare the nitrogen-nitrogen bond in hydrazine,...Ch. 8 - Ethanol can be made by the reaction of ethylene...Ch. 8 - Methanol can be made by partial oxidation of...Ch. 8 - Hydrogenation reactions, which involve the...Ch. 8 - Phosgene, Cl2CO, is a highly toxic gas that was...Ch. 8 - The compound oxygen difluoride is quite reactive,...Ch. 8 - Oxygen atoms can combine with ozone to form...Ch. 8 - Specify the number of valence electrons for Li,...Ch. 8 - In boron compounds, the B atom often is not...Ch. 8 - Which of the following compounds or ions do not...Ch. 8 - In which of the following does the central atom...Ch. 8 - Draw resonance structures for the formate ion,...Ch. 8 - Consider a series of molecules in which carbon is...Ch. 8 - To estimate the enthalpy change for the reaction...Ch. 8 - What is the principle of electroneutrality? Use...Ch. 8 - Draw Lewis structures (and resonance structures...Ch. 8 - Draw resonance structures for the SO2 molecule,...Ch. 8 - What are the orders of the NO bonds in NO2 and...Ch. 8 - Which has the greater ONO bond angle, NO2 or NO2+?...Ch. 8 - Compare the FClF angles in CIF2+ and ClF2. Using...Ch. 8 - Draw an electron dot structure for the cyanide...Ch. 8 - Draw the electron dot structure for the sulfite...Ch. 8 - Dinitrogen monoxide, N2O, can decompose to...Ch. 8 - The equation for the combustion of gaseous...Ch. 8 - The cyanate ion, OCN, has the least...Ch. 8 - Vanillin is the flavoring agent in vanilla extract...Ch. 8 - Explain why (a) XeF2 has a linear molecular...Ch. 8 - The formula for nitryl chloride is ClNO2 (in which...Ch. 8 - Hydroxyproline is a less-common amino acid. (a)...Ch. 8 - Amides are an important class of organic...Ch. 8 - Use the bond dissociation enthalpies in Table 8.8...Ch. 8 - The molecule shown here. 2-furylmelhanethiol, is...Ch. 8 - Dihydroxyacetone is a component of quick-tanning...Ch. 8 - It is possible to draw three resonance structures...Ch. 8 - Acrolein is used to make plastics. Suppose this...Ch. 8 - Molecules in space: (a) In addition to molecules...Ch. 8 - 1,2-Dichloroethylene can be synthesized by adding...Ch. 8 - The molecule pictured below is epinephrine, a...Ch. 8 - You are doing an experiment in the laboratory and...Ch. 8 - Methylacetamide, CH3CONHCH3, is a small molecule...Ch. 8 - A paper published in the research Journal Science...Ch. 8 - Uracil is one of the bases in RNA, a close...Ch. 8 - White phosphorus exists as P4 molecules with...Ch. 8 - The answer in Study Question 95 does not exactly...Ch. 8 - Bromine-containing species play a role in...Ch. 8 - Acrylamide, H2C=CHCONH2, is a known neurotoxin and...

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