   Chapter 8, Problem 48PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Compare the carbon-oxygen bond lengths in the formate ion (HCO2−), in methanol (CH3OH), and in the carbonate ion (CO32−). In which species is the carbon-oxygen bond predicted to be longest? In which is it predicted to be shortest? Explain briefly.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The ions which have the highest and shortest CO length from the given list have to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Fractional bond order: The molecules which have resonance structures possess fractional bond order.

Bond order between any bonded pair of atoms X and Y:

Bond length is inversely proportional to the bond order.

A higher bond order results in a shorter bond for a given pair of atoms.

Explanation

Bond order for the compounds having resonance structures can be calculated by the general equation:[If the bond pair have the atoms X and Y]

Bond order of CO bonds in HCO2is calculated as follows:

In HCO2, one CO single bond and one C=O double bond is present.

The number of shared pairs is three and there are two carbon-oxygen links.

Bondorder=32=1.5

Bond order of CO bonds in CH3OHis calculated as follows:

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