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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

In boron compounds, the B atom often is not sur-rounded by four valence electron pairs. Illustrate this with BCl3. Show how the molecule can achieve an octet configuration by forming a coordinate covalent bond with ammonia (NH3).

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The structure of BCl3 has to be illustrated and also has to show how BCl3 will achieve an octet configuration by forming a coordinate covalent bond with ammonia.

Concept Introduction:

  • The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.
  • According to octet rule an atom is said to be in stable arrangement if its valence shell has 8 electrons and it can be achieved by gaining, losing or sharing of electrons with other atoms.
  • If the valence shell of atom contains 8 electrons, it gets the electronic configuration of noble gas where the outer shell electronic configuration is images.
  • Since the valence shell of noble gases is already filled and has 8 valence electrons, it violates octet rule.
  • Any chemical substance can be classified as an acid or base by using Lewis acid base theory. Further,the acidic and basic nature of the substance can be analyzed through the ability of molecules to accept and donate electrons.
  • According to Lewis acid -base theory,

    An acid is a substance that accepts a pair of electrons.

    A base is a substance that donates a pair of electrons.

Explanation

There are three outer free electrons for an atomic boron and commonly it forms three bonds.

Consider the molecule BCl3

From the above given figure, it is clear that boron has not been able to complete its octet and there are only six electrons around it.

Thus, BCl3 can be considered as an electron deficient compound and so it can accept electrons from bases

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