Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Draw resonance structures for the formate ion, HCO2 and then determine the C—O bond order in the ion.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The resonance structure for formate ion, HCO2- and bond order of C-O in the ion should be determined

Concept Introduction:

  • Sometimes the chemical bonding of a molecule cannot be represented using a single Lewis structure. In these cases, the chemical bonding are described by delocalization of electrons and is known as resonance.
  • All the possible resonance structures are imaginary whereas the resonance hybrid is real.
  • These structures will differ only in the arrangement of the electrons not in the relative position of the atomic nuclei.
  • While drawing resonance structure of a molecule some rules should be followed where the position, over whole charge and chemical framework remains intact. Also only π and nonbonding electron has been moved in all the three resonance structures

Bond order: It is the number of bonding electron pair shared by two atoms in a molecule.

Bond order count as 1, 2, 3, as well as fraction of bond orders.

Bondorder=Number of shared pairs in all X-Y bondsNumber of X-Y links in the molecule or ion


The formate ion, HCO2- resonance structure is determined by delocalizing the lone pair electrons and the phi electrons present in the formate ion.


The bond order gives an idea about the stability of a molecule. It can be calculated using the molecular orbital theory. The stability of a molecule increase as the bond order increases

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