   Chapter 8, Problem 65GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Draw Lewis structures (and resonance structures where appropriate) for the following molecules and ions. What similarities and differences are there in this series? (a) CO2 (b) N3− (c) OCN−

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The Lewis structure and resonance structure of the given three species should be drawn and the differences and similarities of these three species should be identified.

Concept Introduction:

• Lewis structures are diagrams that represent the chemical bonding of covalently bonded molecules and coordination compounds.
• It is also known as Lewis dot structures which represent the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.
• The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.
• Sometimes the chemical bonding of a molecule cannot be represented using a single Lewis structure. In these cases, the chemical bonding are described by delocalization of electrons and is known as resonance.
• All the possible resonance structures are imaginary whereas the resonance hybrid is real.
• These structures will differ only in the arrangement of the electrons not in the relative position of the atomic nuclei.
Explanation

The Lewis electron dot structure for given molecules are determined by first drawing the skeletal structure for the given molecules, then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecules are determined.

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed considering each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

Lewis structure for CO2

Here, the valency of carbon atom is not complete so two double bonds are made between carbon and two oxygen atoms.

Three resonance structures are possible for CO2 by the delocalization of electrons

Lewis structure for N3

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