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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 8, Problem 68GQ
Textbook Problem
279 views

Which has the greater O—N—O bond angle, NO2 or NO2+? Explain briefly.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The bond angle of NO2 or NO2+ is greater should be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular geometry: It is defined as unique three dimensional arrangements of atoms around the central metal present in the molecule which is determined by using spectroscopic techniques and also by using Lewis structure or the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR).

VSEPR Theory:

As the name itself indicates that the basis for this theory is the electron pair that is bonded electron present in either single or double bonds or lone pair electrons, present in the valence shell tends to repel each other which then tend to be in position in order to minimize the repulsions.  The steps involved in the theory in describing the geometry is as follows,

  • The first step is to draw the correct Lewis structure for the molecule.
  • Then, the electron domain around the central atom should be counted and the geometry that matches with that type of domain in VSEPR should be determined.
  • Finally, the geometry is predicted by using the orientation of atoms.

The molecules with considering the domains of type AB2 will tend to have shape like linear or bent if the central atom have lone pair of electrons with it, type AB3 will have shape like trigonal planar, type AB4 will have shape like tetrahedral or square planar, type AB5 will have trigonal bipyramidal and AB6 will have shape like octahedral respectively.

Electron Domain: In VSEPR theory, both the lone pair and the bonded pair are together considered as electron domain regardless of the type of bond in which the bonded pair presents.

Electron-Pair geometry: It is the geometry obtained by considering all valence electrons and bond pairs around central atom.

Molecular geometry: It is the geometry obtained by considering only the directly bonded atoms with the central atom.

Explanation of Solution

The Lewis electron dot structure for given molecules are determined by first drawing the skeletal structure for the given molecules, then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecules are determined.

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed considering each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

  

The geometry of NO2 is bend to minimize the repulsion. It has bond angle 115o due to the presence of one lone pair present on nitrogen atom

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Chapter 8 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Ch. 8.4 - Draw resonance structures for the bicarbonate ion,...Ch. 8.4 - 1. For which of the following species, SO32−, NO+,...Ch. 8.4 - 2. What are the formal charges on nitrogen and...Ch. 8.5 - Sketch the Lewis structures for CIF2+ and CIF2....Ch. 8.5 - 1. Draw a Lewis structure for HOMO. Are there any...Ch. 8.5 - 2. Draw a Lewis structure for the...Ch. 8.5 - 1. In which of the following sulfur species, SF2,...Ch. 8.5 - 2. How many lone pairs of electrons are on the...Ch. 8.6 - What is the shape of the dichloromethane (CH2C12)...Ch. 8.6 - Give the electron-pair geometry and molecular...Ch. 8.6 - Draw the Lewis structure for lCl2, and then decide...Ch. 8.6 - Use Lewis structures and the VSEPR model to...Ch. 8.6 - Which of the following species has...Ch. 8.6 - What is the molecular geometry of the SbF52 ion?...Ch. 8.6 - What is the approximate ClCCl bond angle in...Ch. 8.6 - 4. What is the molecular geometry of N2O (where...Ch. 8.7 - Draw the resonance structures for SCN. What are...Ch. 8.7 - For each of the following molecules, decide...Ch. 8.7 - 1. Which bond among those listed below is the most...Ch. 8.7 - 2. Which of the following best describes the...Ch. 8.7 - Three resonance forms can be drawn for the...Ch. 8.8 - The electrostatic potential surface for SOCl2 is...Ch. 8.8 - Using the bond dissociation enthalpies in Table...Ch. 8.8 - 1. Which of the hydrogen halides is the most...Ch. 8.8 - Which of the molecules listed below is nonpolar?...Ch. 8.9 - 1. Which of the following species has the longest...Ch. 8.9 - 2. Which of the following species has the largest...Ch. 8.9 - 3. Use bond dissociation enthalpies to estimate...Ch. 8 - Give the periodic group number and number of...Ch. 8 - Give the periodic group number and number of...Ch. 8 - For elements in Groups 4A-7A of the periodic...Ch. 8 - Which of the following elements are capable of...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Show all possible resonance structures for each of...Ch. 8 - Show all possible resonance structures for each of...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Determine the formal charge on each atom in the...Ch. 8 - Determine the formal charge on each atom in the...Ch. 8 - Determine the formal charge on each atom in the...Ch. 8 - Determine the formal charge on each atom in the...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - The following molecules or ions all have two...Ch. 8 - The following molecules or ions all have three...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Give approximate values for the indicated bond...Ch. 8 - Give approximate values for the indicated bond...Ch. 8 - Phenylalanine is one of the natural amino acids...Ch. 8 - Acetylacetone has the structure shown here....Ch. 8 - For each pair of bonds, indicate the more polar...Ch. 8 - For each of the bonds listed below, tell which...Ch. 8 - Urea, (NH2)2CO, is used in plastics and...Ch. 8 - Considering both formal charges and bond...Ch. 8 - Considering both formal charge and bond...Ch. 8 - Three resonance structures are possible for...Ch. 8 - Three resonance structures are possible for the...Ch. 8 - Compare the electron dot structures of the...Ch. 8 - Compare the electron dot structures of the...Ch. 8 - The chemistry of the nitrite ion and HNO2: (a) Two...Ch. 8 - Draw the resonance structures for the formate ion,...Ch. 8 - Consider the following molecules: (a) H2O (b) NH3...Ch. 8 - Consider the following molecules: (a) CH4 (b)...Ch. 8 - Which of the following molecules is(are) polar?...Ch. 8 - Which of the following molecules is(are) not...Ch. 8 - Give the bond order for each bond in the following...Ch. 8 - Give the bond order for each bond in the following...Ch. 8 - In each pair of bonds, predict which is shorter....Ch. 8 - In each pair of bonds, predict which is shorter....Ch. 8 - Consider the nitrogen-oxygen bond lengths in NO2+,...Ch. 8 - Compare the carbon-oxygen bond lengths in the...Ch. 8 - Consider the carbon-oxygen bond in formaldehyde...Ch. 8 - Compare the nitrogen-nitrogen bond in hydrazine,...Ch. 8 - Ethanol can be made by the reaction of ethylene...Ch. 8 - Methanol can be made by partial oxidation of...Ch. 8 - Hydrogenation reactions, which involve the...Ch. 8 - Phosgene, Cl2CO, is a highly toxic gas that was...Ch. 8 - The compound oxygen difluoride is quite reactive,...Ch. 8 - Oxygen atoms can combine with ozone to form...Ch. 8 - Specify the number of valence electrons for Li,...Ch. 8 - In boron compounds, the B atom often is not...Ch. 8 - Which of the following compounds or ions do not...Ch. 8 - In which of the following does the central atom...Ch. 8 - Draw resonance structures for the formate ion,...Ch. 8 - Consider a series of molecules in which carbon is...Ch. 8 - To estimate the enthalpy change for the reaction...Ch. 8 - What is the principle of electroneutrality? Use...Ch. 8 - Draw Lewis structures (and resonance structures...Ch. 8 - Draw resonance structures for the SO2 molecule,...Ch. 8 - What are the orders of the NO bonds in NO2 and...Ch. 8 - Which has the greater ONO bond angle, NO2 or NO2+?...Ch. 8 - Compare the FClF angles in CIF2+ and ClF2. Using...Ch. 8 - Draw an electron dot structure for the cyanide...Ch. 8 - Draw the electron dot structure for the sulfite...Ch. 8 - Dinitrogen monoxide, N2O, can decompose to...Ch. 8 - The equation for the combustion of gaseous...Ch. 8 - The cyanate ion, OCN, has the least...Ch. 8 - Vanillin is the flavoring agent in vanilla extract...Ch. 8 - Explain why (a) XeF2 has a linear molecular...Ch. 8 - The formula for nitryl chloride is ClNO2 (in which...Ch. 8 - Hydroxyproline is a less-common amino acid. (a)...Ch. 8 - Amides are an important class of organic...Ch. 8 - Use the bond dissociation enthalpies in Table 8.8...Ch. 8 - The molecule shown here. 2-furylmelhanethiol, is...Ch. 8 - Dihydroxyacetone is a component of quick-tanning...Ch. 8 - It is possible to draw three resonance structures...Ch. 8 - Acrolein is used to make plastics. Suppose this...Ch. 8 - Molecules in space: (a) In addition to molecules...Ch. 8 - 1,2-Dichloroethylene can be synthesized by adding...Ch. 8 - The molecule pictured below is epinephrine, a...Ch. 8 - You are doing an experiment in the laboratory and...Ch. 8 - Methylacetamide, CH3CONHCH3, is a small molecule...Ch. 8 - A paper published in the research Journal Science...Ch. 8 - Uracil is one of the bases in RNA, a close...Ch. 8 - White phosphorus exists as P4 molecules with...Ch. 8 - The answer in Study Question 95 does not exactly...Ch. 8 - Bromine-containing species play a role in...Ch. 8 - Acrylamide, H2C=CHCONH2, is a known neurotoxin and...

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