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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Explain why

  1. (a) XeF2 has a linear molecular structure and not a bent one.
  2. (b) ClF3 has a T-shaped structure and not a trigonal-planar one.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The XeF2 molecule has linear structure but not bent should be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular geometry: It is defined as unique three dimensional arrangement of atoms around the central metal present in the molecule which is determined by using spectroscopic techniques and also by using Lewis structure or the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR).

VSEPR Theory:

As the name itself indicate that the basis for this theory is the electron pair that is bonded electron present in either single or double bonds or lone pair electrons, present in the valence shell tend to repel each other which then tends to be in position in order to minimize the repulsions. The steps involved in the theory in describing the geometry is as follows,

  • The first step is to draw the correct Lewis structure for the molecule.
  • Then, the electron domain around the central atom should be counted and the geometry that matches with that type of domain in VSEPR should be determined.
  • Finally, the geometry is predicted by using the orientation of atoms.

The molecules with domains of type AB2 tend to have shape like linear, type AB2 with lone pair electrons will have bent shape, type AB3 will have shape like trigonal planar, type AB4 will have shape like tetrahedral or square planar, type AB5 will have trigonal bipyramidal and AB6 will have shape like octahedral respectively.

Electron Domain: In VSEPR theory, both the lone pair and the bonded pair are together considered as electron domain regardless of the type of bond in which the bonded pair presents.

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons obtained after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

Bond length:

Bond distance or bond length is the average distance between nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule.

Bond angle:

It is the angle formed between three atoms across at least two bonds.

Explanation

The Lewis structure for molecule XeF2 is as follows,

  

The molecule XeF2 has three lone pair around the Xe atom

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The ClF3 molecule has T–shaped structure but not trigonal–planar should be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular geometry: It is defined as unique three dimensional arrangement of atoms around the central metal present in the molecule which is determined by using spectroscopic techniques and also by using Lewis structure or the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR).

VSEPR Theory:

As the name itself indicate that the basis for this theory is the electron pair that is bonded electron present in either single or double bonds or lone pair electrons, present in the valence shell tend to repel each other which then tends to be in position in order to minimize the repulsions. The steps involved in the theory in describing the geometry is as follows,

  • The first step is to draw the correct Lewis structure for the molecule.
  • Then, the electron domain around the central atom should be counted and the geometry that matches with that type of domain in VSEPR should be determined.
  • Finally, the geometry is predicted by using the orientation of atoms.

The molecules with domains of type AB2 tend to have shape like linear, type AB2 with lone pair electrons will have bent shape, type AB3 will have shape like trigonal planar, type AB4 will have shape like tetrahedral or square planar, type AB5 will have trigonal bipyramidal and AB6 will have shape like octahedral respectively.

Electron Domain: In VSEPR theory, both the lone pair and the bonded pair are together considered as electron domain regardless of the type of bond in which the bonded pair presents.

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons obtained after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

Bond length:

Bond distance or bond length is the average distance between nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule.

Bond angle:

It is the angle formed between three atoms across at least two bonds.

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