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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The formula for nitryl chloride is ClNO2 (in which N is the central atom).

  1. (a) Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule, including all resonance structures.
  2. (b) What is the N—O bond order?
  3. (c) Describe the electron-pair and molecular geometries, and give values for all bond angles.
  4. (d) What is the most polar bond in the molecule? Is the molecule polar?
  5. (e) The computer program used to calculate electrostatic potential surfaces gave the following charges on atoms in the molecule: A = −0.03, B = −0.26, and C = +0.56. Identify the atoms A, B, and C. Are these calculated charges in accord with your predictions?

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(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The Lewis structure for nitryl chloride (ClNO2) and its resonance structures should be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons obtained after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

Explanation

The Lewis structure and resonance structure are shown below:

Given the molecule have 24 electrons in overlapping orbitals,

    

Resonance structure of given the statement of molecule h...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The NO bond order in the given molecule nitryl chloride (ClNO2) should be identified.

Concept Introduction:

The bond order gives an idea about the stability of a molecule. It can be calculated using the molecular orbital theory. The stability of a molecule increase as the bond order increases. The bond order for any bonded pair atoms, like X and Y determined as follows,

  Bondorder=No. of shared pairs in all X-Y bondsNo. of X-Y links in the molecule or ion

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron–pair geometry, molecular geometry and the bond angle values should be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Bond angle:

It is the angle formed between three atoms across at least two bonds.

VSEPR Theory:

As the name itself indicate that the basis for this theory is the electron pair that is bonded electron present in either single or double bonds or lone pair electrons, present in the valence shell tend to repel each other which then tends to be in position in order to minimize the repulsions. The steps involved in the theory in describing the geometry is as follows,

  • The first step is to draw the correct Lewis structure for the molecule.
  • Then, the electron domain around the central atom should be counted and the geometry that matches with that type of domain in VSEPR should be determined.
  • Finally, the geometry is predicted by using the orientation of atoms.

The molecules with domains of type AB2 tend to have shape like linear, type AB2 with lone pair electrons will have bent shape, type AB3 will have shape like trigonal planar, type AB4 will have shape like tetrahedral or square planar, type AB5 will have trigonal bipyramidal and AB6 will have shape like octahedral respectively.

Electron Domain: In VSEPR theory, both the lone pair and the bonded pair are together considered as electron domain regardless of the type of bond in which the bonded pair presents.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The molecule should be identified that whether it is polar and the most polar bond should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Electronegativity: It is defined as the capacity of the atom to abstract the pair of electrons towards itself results to have high negative charge.

Polar molecule: The molecule with atoms bonded with different electronegativity. Dipole moment is used to measure the polarity of the molecule.

Polarity of a molecule is measured in term of dipole moment.

Dipole moment for a polar molecule is non-zero and for a non-polar molecule dipole moment is zero.

Electrostatic potential map: It is 3D representation of molecules which shows the distribution of charges present in the molecule. Generally red, orange, yellow, green and blue defines the charge potentials present in the molecule.

RED<ORANGE<YELLOW<GREEN<BLUE

The blue color indicates the most positive potential end and the red color defines the most negative potential end.

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The molecule should be identified that whether it is polar and the most polar bond should be determined. 

Concept Introduction:

Electronegativity: It is defined as the capacity of the atom to abstract the pair of electrons towards itself results to have high negative charge.

Polar molecule: The molecule with atoms bonded with different electronegativity. Dipole moment is used to measure the polarity of the molecule.

Polarity of a molecule is measured in term of dipole moment.

Dipole moment for a polar molecule is non-zero and for a non-polar molecule dipole moment is zero.

Electrostatic potential map: It is 3D representation of molecules which shows the distribution of charges present in the molecule. Generally red, orange, yellow, green and blue defines the charge potentials present in the molecule.

RED<ORANGE<YELLOW<GREEN<BLUE

The blue color indicates the most positive potential end and the red color defines the most negative potential end.

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