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ChemistryPrinciples of Instrumental Analysis(a) Interpretation: The two expressions for Doppler broadening and Doppler half-width needs to be shown equivalent to each other. Concept introduction: The equation for the half-width for Doppler broadening Δλ 0 of an atomic line can be used to study line broadening in a low − pressure laser-induced plasma.Start your trial now! First week only $4.99!*arrow_forward*

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7th Edition

Douglas A. Skoog + 2 others

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 9781305577213

Chapter 8, Problem 8.12QAP

Interpretation Introduction

**(a)**

**Interpretation:**

The two expressions for Doppler broadening and Doppler half-width needs to be shown equivalent to each other.

**Concept introduction:**

The equation for the half-width for Doppler broadening Δλ_{0} of an atomic line can be used to study line broadening in a low − pressure laser-induced plasma.

Interpretation Introduction

**(b)**

**Interpretation:**

The half-width for Doppler broadening needs to be determined for 4s to 4p transition for nickel atom.

**Concept introduction:**

Doppler bordering is happened due to the Doppler effect caused by a distribution of velocities of atomic molecules.

Interpretation Introduction

**(c)**

**Interpretation:**

The natural line width for the above transition needs to be determined, assuming that the lifetime of the excited state is

**Concept introduction:**

Natural line width is associated with the decay time (Natural life-time) and it is a minimum line width that does not contain effects such as collisional and Doppler broadening.

Interpretation Introduction

**(d)**

**Interpretation:**

To show that the relativistic expression is consistent with the mentioned equation given for the low atomic speeds.

**Concept introduction:**

When compared with the speed of light, atomic speed is very low.

Interpretation Introduction

**(e)**

**Interpretation:**

The speed of an iron atom the 4s to 4p transition at 385.9911 nm should be determined.

**Concept introduction:**

The rest wavelength of Nickel is 410 nm. The formula used is:

Interpretation Introduction

**(f)**

**Interpretation:**

The fraction of a sample of iron atoms at 10,000 K that would have the velocity calculated in part e should be computed.

**Concept introduction:**

Natural line width is associated with the decay time. It is a minimum line width that does not contain effects such as collisional and Doppler broadening.

Interpretation Introduction

**(g)**

**Interpretation:**

A spreadsheet should be created to calculate the Doppler half-width

**Concept introduction:**

Doppler bordering is happened due to the Doppler effect caused by a distribution of velocities of atomic molecules.

Interpretation Introduction

**(h)**

**Interpretation:**

The four sources of pressure broadening should be listed by consulting the paper by Gornushkin et al. (note 10).