BuyFind

Principles of Instrumental Analysis

7th Edition
Douglas A. Skoog + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305577213
BuyFind

Principles of Instrumental Analysis

7th Edition
Douglas A. Skoog + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305577213

Solutions

Chapter 8, Problem 8.12QAP
Interpretation Introduction

(a)

Interpretation:

The two expressions for Doppler broadening and Doppler half-width needs to be shown equivalent to each other.

Concept introduction:

The equation for the half-width for Doppler broadening Δλ0 of an atomic line can be used to study line broadening in a low − pressure laser-induced plasma.

Interpretation Introduction

(b)

Interpretation:

The half-width for Doppler broadening needs to be determined for 4s to 4p transition for nickel atom.

Concept introduction:

Doppler bordering is happened due to the Doppler effect caused by a distribution of velocities of atomic molecules.

Interpretation Introduction

(c)

Interpretation:

The natural line width for the above transition needs to be determined, assuming that the lifetime of the excited state is 5×108 s.

Concept introduction:

Natural line width is associated with the decay time (Natural life-time) and it is a minimum line width that does not contain effects such as collisional and Doppler broadening.

Interpretation Introduction

(d)

Interpretation:

To show that the relativistic expression is consistent with the mentioned equation given for the low atomic speeds.

Concept introduction:

When compared with the speed of light, atomic speed is very low.

Interpretation Introduction

(e)

Interpretation:

The speed of an iron atom the 4s to 4p transition at 385.9911 nm should be determined.

Concept introduction:

The rest wavelength of Nickel is 410 nm. The formula used is:

Δλλ=1(CV)C+V1

Interpretation Introduction

(f)

Interpretation:

The fraction of a sample of iron atoms at 10,000 K that would have the velocity calculated in part e should be computed.

Concept introduction:

Natural line width is associated with the decay time. It is a minimum line width that does not contain effects such as collisional and Doppler broadening.

Interpretation Introduction

(g)

Interpretation:

A spreadsheet should be created to calculate the Doppler half-width ΔλD in nanometers for the nickel and iron lines cited in part b and e from 30000-10,000 K.

Concept introduction:

Doppler bordering is happened due to the Doppler effect caused by a distribution of velocities of atomic molecules.

Interpretation Introduction

(h)

Interpretation:

The four sources of pressure broadening should be listed by consulting the paper by Gornushkin et al. (note 10).

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