# Two sociologists administered questionnaires to samples of undergraduates that measured attitudes toward interpersonal violence (higher scores indicate greater approval of interpersonal violence). Test the results as reported here for gender, racial, and social-class differences. a. Sample 1 (Males) Sample 2 (Female) X ¯ 1 = 2.99 X ¯ 2 = 2.29 s 1 = 0.88 s 2 = 0.91 N 1 = 122 N 2 = 251 b. Sample 1 (Blacks) Sample 2 (Whites) X ¯ 1 = 2.76 X ¯ 2 = 2.49 s 1 = 0.68 s 2 = 0.91 N 1 = 43 N 2 = 304 c. Sample 1 (White Collar) Sample 2 (Blue Collar) X ¯ 1 = 2.46 X ¯ 2 = 2.67 s 1 = 0.91 s 2 = 0.87 N 1 = 249 N 2 = 97 Summarize your results in terms of the significance and the direction of the differences. Which of these three factors seems to make the biggest difference in attitudes toward interpersonal violence?

### Essentials Of Statistics

4th Edition
HEALEY + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781305093836

### Essentials Of Statistics

4th Edition
HEALEY + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781305093836

#### Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 8, Problem 8.2P
Textbook Problem
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## Two sociologists administered questionnaires to samples of undergraduates that measured attitudes toward interpersonal violence (higher scores indicate greater approval of interpersonal violence). Test the results as reported here for gender, racial, and social-class differences.a. Sample 1(Males) Sample 2(Female) X ¯ 1 = 2.99 X ¯ 2 = 2.29 s 1 = 0.88 s 2 = 0.91 N 1 = 122 N 2 = 251 b. Sample 1(Blacks) Sample 2(Whites) X ¯ 1 = 2.76 X ¯ 2 = 2.49 s 1 = 0.68 s 2 = 0.91 N 1 = 43 N 2 = 304 c. Sample 1(White Collar) Sample 2(Blue Collar) X ¯ 1 = 2.46 X ¯ 2 = 2.67 s 1 = 0.91 s 2 = 0.87 N 1 = 249 N 2 = 97 Summarize your results in terms of the significance and the direction of the differences. Which of these three factors seems to make the biggest difference in attitudes toward interpersonal violence?

Expert Solution
To determine

(a)

To find:

The significant difference in the sample statistics of the two samples.

### Explanation of Solution

Given:

The sample statistics is given in the table below,

 Sample 1(Males) Sample 2(Female) X¯1=2.99 X¯2=2.29 s1=0.88 s2=0.91 N1=122 N2=251

The five step model for hypothesis testing:

Step 1. Making assumptions and meeting test requirements.

Step 2. Stating the null hypothesis.

Step 3. Selecting the sampling distribution and establishing the critical region.

Step 4. Computing test statistics.

Step 5. Making a decision and interpreting the results of the test.

Formula used:

The formula to calculate the sampling distribution of the differences in sample means is given by,

Z(obtained)=(X¯1X¯2)(μ1μ2)σX¯X¯

Where, X¯1 and X¯2 is the mean of first and second sample respectively,

μ1 and μ2 is the mean of first and second population respectively,

σX¯X¯ is the standard deviation and the formula to calculate σX¯X¯ is given by,

σX¯X¯=s21N11+s22N21

Where, N1 and N2 is the number of first and second population respectively.

Calculation:

From the given information, the sample size of the first sample is 122, the sample size of the second sample is 251, the sample mean of the first sample is 2.99, the sample mean of the second sample is 2.29, the sample standard deviation of the first sample is 0.88, and the sample standard deviation of the second sample is 0.91.

As the significant difference in the sample statistics is to be determined, a two tailed test is applied.

Follow the steps for two-sample testing as,

Step 1. Make assumptions and meet test requirements.

Model:

Consider independent random samples.

Level of measurement is interval ratio.

Sampling distribution is Normal.

Step 2. State the null hypothesis.

The statement of the null hypothesis is that there is no significant difference in the sample s of the population. Thus, the null and the alternative hypotheses are,

H0:μ1=μ2

H1:μ1μ2

Step 3. Select the sampling distribution and establish the critical region.

Since, the sample size is large, Z distribution can be used.

Thus, the sampling distribution is Z distribution.

The level of significance is,

α=0.05

Area of critical region is,

Z(critical)=±1.96

Step 4. Compute test statistics.

The population standard deviations are unknown.

The formula to calculate σX¯X¯ is given by,

σX¯X¯=s21N11+s22N21

Substitute 0

Expert Solution
To determine

(b)

To find:

The significant difference in the sample statistics of the two samples.

Expert Solution
To determine

(c)

To find:

The significant difference in the sample statistics of the two samples.

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