# (a) Interpretation: Comparison of ratio of atoms or ions in 3p states and in ground state of Na atom and Mg + is to be done when there is a natural gas air flame of temperature 1800 K. Concept introduction: Boltzmann equation is used for the calculation of the ratio. This equation tells that how much an atom or ion is populated as a function of temperature. This equation is given as- N j N o = g j g o exp ( − E j k T ) ......... (1) And the calculation of energy of atom and ion is done by the following formula- E j = h c λ ......... (2) Where, h= Planck’s constant c = light velocity λ= wavelength Ej= energy difference of excited state and ground state ### Principles of Instrumental Analysis

7th Edition
Douglas A. Skoog + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305577213 ### Principles of Instrumental Analysis

7th Edition
Douglas A. Skoog + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305577213

#### Solutions

Chapter 8, Problem 8.9QAP
Interpretation Introduction

## (a)Interpretation:Comparison of ratio of atoms or ions in 3p states and in ground state of Na atom and Mg+ is to be done when there is a natural gas air flame of temperature 1800 K.Concept introduction:Boltzmann equation is used for the calculation of the ratio. This equation tells that how much an atom or ion is populated as a function of temperature. This equation is given as-NjNo=gjgoexp(−EjkT) ......... (1)And the calculation of energy of atom and ion is done by the following formula-Ej=hcλ ......... (2)Where,h= Planck’s constantc = light velocityλ= wavelengthEj= energy difference of excited state and ground state

Interpretation Introduction

### (b)Interpretation:Comparison of ratio of atoms or ions in 3p states and in ground state of Na atom and Mg+ is to be done when there is a hydrogen - oxygen flame of 2950K.Concept introduction:Boltzmann equation is used for the calculation of the ratio. This equation tells that how much an atom or ion is populated as a function of temperature. This equation is given as-NjNo=gjgoexp(−EjkT) ......... (1)And the calculation of energy of atom and ion is done by the following formula-Ej=hcλ ......... (2)Where,h= Planck’s constantc = light velocityλ= wavelengthEj= energy difference of excited state and ground state.

Interpretation Introduction

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