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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The backbone of both DNA and RNA consists of alternating deoxyribose and phophate groups (Figure 8.14).

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  1. (a) Rank the types of bonds (such as C-C C-O) in 2-deoxyribose in terms of increasing polarity.
  2. (b) What are the expected C-O-C, O-C-C, and C-C-C bond angles in the C4O ring?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The bonds in 2-deoxyribose has to be ranked in terms of increasing polarity.

Concept introduction:

Polar covalent bond involves an unequal sharing of electrons between two bonded atoms; it creates a partial separation of charge and a dipole moment.

Covalent bonds are polar, if there is a difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms.

Explanation

The given compound is 2-deoxyribose

The electronegativity of atoms in a bond will be the deciding factor to predict whether the bond is polar or non-polar.

Electronegativities of the atoms in 2-deoxyribose are given below:

Oxygen3.5Carbon2.5Hydrogen2.1

Electronegativity differences between bonds are given below:

C-O=3.5-2.5=1.0

C-H=2.5-2.1=0.4

O-H=3.5-2.1=1

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The expected COC, OCC and CCC bond angles in the C4O ring has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

  • In VSEPR, the geometry of the molecule is explained based on minimizing electrostatic repulsion between the molecules’ valence electrons around a central atom
  • Bond angle is the angle between two bonds of a molecule and it is determined based on the electron-domain geometry.

    [Bond angles: tetrahedral = 109.5o, trigonal planar = 120o, T-shape = 90o]

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons.

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