Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The third and final step in the synthesis involves the transformation of an OH group with CO to a carboxylic acid group (−CO2H) (Figure B). Using bond enthalpy data, is this an endothermic or exothermic step?


Figure B The final step in the synthesis of ibuprofen.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be identified that whether given reaction is an endothermic or exothermic step using bond enthalpy data.

Concept Introduction:

Exothermic reaction: Reaction is considered as exothermic if it releases energy in the form of heat.

Endothermic reaction: The reaction which requires energy and absorbs in order to complete the reaction.

Bond Dissociation EnthalpyΔrH: The change in enthalpy as bond break in molecule with reactants and products in gas phase. The bond breaking process is endothermic since it requires energy to break hence ΔrH will be a positive value and the bond making process in a reaction is exothermic.

The reaction enthalpy change determined by using the following equation,

ΔrH = ΔH(bondsbroken) - ΔH(bondsformed)


The given reaction is as follows,

The bonds that broken in the reactant side are highlighted by red colour and the bond formed in the product side are highlighted in blue colour.

Bonds Broken: 1C-Oand1CO.

Bonds Formed: 1C-C,1C=Oand1CO

The reaction enthalpy for the given reaction is as follows,

ΔrH = ΔH(bondsbroken) - ΔH(bondsformed)

ΔrH = ΔH(bondsbroken) - ΔH(bondsformed)=ΔH((1molC-O)+(1mo

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