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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 9, Problem 17Q
Textbook Problem
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Use the kinetic molecular theory to explain why a liquid gets cooler as it evaporates from an insulated container.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

           Explanation has to be given for the observation- “A liquid gets cooler when it evaporates from an insulated container”.

Concept introduction:

          The phenomenon of evaporation of liquid is transition from “liquid phase” to “vapo r phase”. Almost all the liquids have the tendency to evaporate either spontaneously at room temperature without the effect of “external energy” or in the presence of external energy like heat etc. Since evaporation occurs by the process of absorbing heat from the surroundings, it is an endothermic process.

          Insulation is a process in which there is no transfer of heat or any other form of energy from one body to the other or surroundings.

Explanation of Solution

Explanation

Understand the concept of “energy” in the molecules.

          At room temperature, many of the compounds do remain in stable state. It means their molecules have low energy levels which contribute to the “stability”.

          A substance containing molecules with a lowest possible energy can have high stability. It implies the molecule has not enough energy to undergo any kind of “physical” or “chemical” changes.

         Energy of the molecules can be distinctly classified as kinetic or potential energy which is stored in the molecules in the form of four types of energy – translational energy, vibrational energy, rotational energy and electronic energy. If a substance is said to be stable then it means all these four types of energies are at their lowest possible levels.

          The molecules in motion possess kinetic energy whereas the molecules at rest possess potential energy. The average kinetic energy possessed by molecules is known as temperature.

          Gaseous molecules, for example, has fast motion at room temperature itself than that of the solid and liquid molecules. Thus, gaseous molecules have more kinetic energy...

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Chapter 9 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 9 - It is possible to balance a paper clip on the...Ch. 9 - Consider a sealed container half-filled with...Ch. 9 - Explain the following: You add 100 mL water to a...Ch. 9 - Is it possible for the dispersion forces in a...Ch. 9 - Does the nature of intermolecular forces change...Ch. 9 - Why do liquids have a vapor pressure? Do all...Ch. 9 - Water in an open beaker evaporates over time. As...Ch. 9 - What is the vapor pressure of water at 100C? How...Ch. 9 - Refer to Fig. 9-41. Why doesnt temperature...Ch. 9 - Which are stronger, intermolecular or...Ch. 9 - Why does water evaporate?Ch. 9 - Rationalize why chalk (calcium carbonate) has a...Ch. 9 - In the diagram below, which lines represent the...Ch. 9 - Hydrogen bonding is a special case of very strong...Ch. 9 - Atoms are assumed to touch in closest packed...Ch. 9 - Define critical temperature and critical pressure....Ch. 9 - Use the kinetic molecular theory to explain why a...Ch. 9 - Will a crystalline solid or an amorphous solid...Ch. 9 - What is an alloy? Explain the differences in...Ch. 9 - Describe what is meant by a dynamic equilibrium in...Ch. 9 - How does each of the following affect the rate of...Ch. 9 - A common response to hearing that the temperature...Ch. 9 - When a person has a severe fever, one therapy used...Ch. 9 - Why is a burn from steam typically much more...Ch. 9 - When wet laundry is hung on a clothesline on a...Ch. 9 - Cake mixes and other packaged foods that require...Ch. 9 - You have three covalent compounds with three very...Ch. 9 - Compare and contrast the structures of the...Ch. 9 - Compare and contrast the structures of the...Ch. 9 - Silicon carbide (SiC) is an extremely hard...Ch. 9 - How could you tell experimentally if TiO2 is an...Ch. 9 - A common prank on college campuses is to switch...Ch. 9 - A plot of In (Pvap) versus 1/T (K) is linear with...Ch. 9 - Iodine, like most substances, exhibits only three...Ch. 9 - Identify the most important types of interparticle...Ch. 9 - Identify the most important types of interparticle...Ch. 9 - Predict which substance in each of the following...Ch. 9 - Consider the compounds CI2, HCI. F2, NaF, and HF....Ch. 9 - Rationalize the difference in boiling points for...Ch. 9 - Consider the following electrostatic potential...Ch. 9 - In each of the following groups of substances,...Ch. 9 - In each of the following groups of substances,...Ch. 9 - The shape of the meniscus of water in a glass tube...Ch. 9 - Explain why water forms into beads on a waxed car...Ch. 9 - Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a syrupy liquid with a...Ch. 9 - Carbon diselenide (CSe2) is a liquid at room...Ch. 9 - X rays from a copper X-ray tube ( = 154 pm) were...Ch. 9 - The second-order diffraction (n = 2) for a gold...Ch. 9 - A topaz crystal has an interplanar spacing (d) of...Ch. 9 - X rays of wavelength 2.63 were used to analyze a...Ch. 9 - Calcium has a cubic closest packed structure as a...Ch. 9 - Nickel has a face-centered cubic unit cell. The...Ch. 9 - A certain form of lead has a cubic closest packed...Ch. 9 - Iridium (Ir) has a face-centered cubic unit cell...Ch. 9 - You are given a small bar of an unknown metal X....Ch. 9 - A metallic solid with atoms in a face-centered...Ch. 9 - Titanium metal has a body-centered cubic unit...Ch. 9 - Barium has a body-centered cubic structure. If the...Ch. 9 - The radius of gold is 144 pm, and the density is...Ch. 9 - The radius of tungsten is 137 pm and the density...Ch. 9 - What fraction of the total volume of a cubic...Ch. 9 - Iron has a density of 7.86 g/cm3 and crystallizes...Ch. 9 - Explain how doping silicon with either phosphorus...Ch. 9 - Explain how a pn junction makes an excellent...Ch. 9 - Selenium is a semiconductor used in photocopying...Ch. 9 - The Group 3A/Group 5A semiconductors are composed...Ch. 9 - The band gap in aluminum phosphide (AlP) is 2.5...Ch. 9 - An aluminum antimonide solid-state laser emits...Ch. 9 - The structures of some common crystalline...Ch. 9 - The unit cell for nickel arsenide is shown below....Ch. 9 - Cobalt fluoride crystallizes in a closest packed...Ch. 9 - The compounds Na2O, CdS, and ZrI4. all can be...Ch. 9 - What is the formula for the compound that...Ch. 9 - Assume the two-dimensional structure of an ionic...Ch. 9 - A certain metal fluoride crystallizes in such a...Ch. 9 - The structure of manganese fluoride can be...Ch. 9 - The unit cell of MgO is shown below l Does MgO...Ch. 9 - In solid KCl the smallest distance between the...Ch. 9 - The CsCl structure is a simple cubic array of...Ch. 9 - MnO has either the NaCI type structure or the CsCI...Ch. 9 - What type of solid will each of the following...Ch. 9 - What type of solid will each of the following...Ch. 9 - The memory metal, nitinol, is an alloy of nickel...Ch. 9 - Superalloys have been made of nickel and aluminum....Ch. 9 - Perovskite is a mineral containing calcium,...Ch. 9 - A mineral crystallizes in a cubic closest packed...Ch. 9 - Materials containing the elements Y, Ba, Cu, and O...Ch. 9 - The structures of another class of ceramic,...Ch. 9 - Plot the following data and determine Hvap for...Ch. 9 - From the following data for liquid nitric acid,...Ch. 9 - In Breckenridge, Colorado, the typical atmospheric...Ch. 9 - The temperature inside a pressure cooker is 115C....Ch. 9 - Carbon tetrachloride, CCI4, has a vapor pressure...Ch. 9 - Diethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3) was one of the first...Ch. 9 - A substance, X, has the following properties:...Ch. 9 - Use the heating-cooling curve below to answer the...Ch. 9 - The molar heat of fusion of sodium metal is 2.60...Ch. 9 - The molar heat of fusion of benzene (C6H6) is 9.92...Ch. 9 - What quantity of energy does it take to convert...Ch. 9 - Consider a 75.0-g sample of H2O(g) at 125C. 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The first...Ch. 9 - Consider the following data concerning four...Ch. 9 - Argon has a cubic closest packed structure as a...Ch. 9 - Dry nitrogen gas is bubbled through liquid benzene...Ch. 9 - A 20.0-g sample of ice at 10.0C is mixed with...Ch. 9 - In regions with dry climates, evaporative coolers...Ch. 9 - The critical point of NH3 is 132C and 111 atm, and...Ch. 9 - Which of the following compound(s) exhibit only...Ch. 9 - Which of the following statements about...Ch. 9 - Which of the following statements is( are) true?...Ch. 9 - Aluminum has an atomic radius of 143 pm and forms...Ch. 9 - Pyrolusite is a mineral containing manganese ions...Ch. 9 - The structure of the compound K2O is best...Ch. 9 - What type of solid (network, metallic, Group 8A,...Ch. 9 - Some ice cubes at 0c with a total mass of 403 g...Ch. 9 - The enthalpy of vaporization for acetone is 32.0...Ch. 9 - Choose the statements that correctly describe the...Ch. 9 - When I mole of benzene is vaporized at a constant...Ch. 9 - You and a friend each synthesize a compound with...Ch. 9 - Using the heats of fusion and vaporization for...Ch. 9 - Consider a perfectly insulated and sealed...Ch. 9 - Consider two different organic compounds, each...Ch. 9 - Rationalize the differences in physical properties...Ch. 9 - Consider the following melting point data:...Ch. 9 - Some ionic compounds contain a mixture of...Ch. 9 - Some ionic compounds contain a mixture of...Ch. 9 - Spinel is a mineral that contains 37.9% aluminum,...Ch. 9 - Mn crystallizes in the same type of cubic unit...Ch. 9 - You are asked to help set up a historical display...Ch. 9 - Some water is placed in a sealed glass container...Ch. 9 - The molar enthalpy of vaporization of water at 373...Ch. 9 - For a simple cubic array, solve for the volume of...Ch. 9 - Rubidium chloride has the sodium chloride...Ch. 9 - A 0.132-mole sample of an unknown semiconducting...Ch. 9 - A metal burns in air at 600c under high pressure...Ch. 9 - One method of preparing elemental mercury involves...Ch. 9 - General Zod has sold Lex Luthor what Zod claims to...

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