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Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305957404

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305957404
Chapter 9, Problem 1ALQ
Textbook Problem
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What are molecular orbitals? How do they compare with atomic orbitals? Can you tell by the shape of the bonding and antibonding orbitals which is lower in energy? Explain.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Molecular orbitals are to be defined. Their comparison with atomic orbitals and the significance of the shape of bonding and antibonding orbitals in the description of their energy is to be stated.

Concept introduction: When the atomic orbitals overlap with each other in the region where density of electrons is high, then molecular orbitals are formed. Overlap of the atomic orbitals determines the efficiency of the interaction between the atomic orbitals.

Energy of bonding molecular orbitals is less than the nonbonding molecular orbitals.

To determine: The definition of molecular orbitals, their comparison with atomic orbitals and the significance of the shape of bonding and antibonding orbitals in the description of their energy.

Explanation of Solution

Explanation

A molecular orbital describes the probability of an electron in a particular region. They are formed by the combination of atomic orbitals of atoms in a molecule. It is the result of interactions between the atomic orbitals that have similar energy and symmetry. There can be addition or subtraction of the orbitals which indicates the type of interference.

Atomic orbitals can be named as s,p,d,f while there are two types of molecular orbitals which are bonding and antibonding molecular orbital.

In the bonding orbitals, most of the electron density is between the nuclei of the bonded atoms

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Chapter 9 Solutions

Chemistry
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