BuyFind

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399074
BuyFind

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399074

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 9, Problem 1PS
Textbook Problem

Draw the Lewis structure for chloroform, CHCl3. What are its electron-pair and molecular geometries? What orbitals on C, H, and Cl overlap to form bonds involving these elements?

Expert Solution
Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The Lewis structure for chloroform CHCl3 has to be drawn. The orbitals on C, H and Cl overlap to form bonds involving these elements in chloroform and its electron-pair and molecular geometries should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

  • Lewis structures are diagrams that represent the chemical bonding of covalently bonded molecules and coordination compounds.
  • It is also known as Lewis dot structures which represent the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.
  • The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.
  • Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.
  • Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.
  • sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.
  • sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.
  • sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons.

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations are mentioned are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Geometry of different type of molecules with respect to the number of electron pairs are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

Explanation of Solution

The Lewis structure of CHCl3 is drawn below,

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 9, Problem 1PS , additional homework tip  1

There are four atoms bonded to the central atom carbon in CHCl3 molecule. Therefore according to the above mentioned concepts the electron pair and molecular geometry of CHCl3 are both tetrahedral.

The molecule with tetrahedral geometry possesses sp3 hybridization.

Therefore,

Each CCl bond is formed by the overlap of a sp3 hybrid orbital on the Carbon atom with a 3p orbital on a chlorine atom to form a sigma bond.

A CH sigma bond is formed by the overlap of a sp3 hybrid orbital on the carbon atom with an H atom’s 1s orbital.

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 9, Problem 1PS , additional homework tip  2

Conclusion

The chloroform molecule (CHCl3) hybridizations, Lewis structure and molecular geometry were discussed.

Want to see more full solutions like this?

Subscribe now to access step-by-step solutions to millions of textbook problems written by subject matter experts!

Get Solutions

Want to see more full solutions like this?

Subscribe now to access step-by-step solutions to millions of textbook problems written by subject matter experts!

Get Solutions

Chapter 9 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
Show fewer chapter solutions
Ch. 9.1 - Use valence bond theory to describe the bonding in...Ch. 9.1 - Identify the hybridization of each underlined atom...Ch. 9.1 - Use valence bond theory to describe the bonding in...Ch. 9.2 - What is the electron configuration of the H2+ ion?...Ch. 9.2 - Could the anion Li2 exist? What is the ions bond...Ch. 9.2 - The cations O2+ and N2+ are formed when molecules...Ch. 9.3 - Photoelectron spectroscopy is s1milar to the...Ch. 9.3 - What is the energy of a photon with a wavelength...Ch. 9.3 - Using the accompanying figure, state which...Ch. 9.3 - The kinetic energy of an electron ejected from the...Ch. 9.3 - The N2+ ions that are formed when electrons with...Ch. 9.3 - What is the empirical formula of Tynan purple?Ch. 9.3 - Butter yellow absorbs light with a wavelength of...Ch. 9.3 - How many alternating double bonds are there in...Ch. 9 - Draw the Lewis structure for chloroform, CHCl3....Ch. 9 - Draw the Lewis structure for NF3. What are its...Ch. 9 - Draw the Lewis structure for hydroxylamine, H2NOH....Ch. 9 - Draw the Lewis structure for 1,...Ch. 9 - Draw the Lewis structure for carbonyl fluoride,...Ch. 9 - Draw the Lewis structure for acetamide, CH3CONH2....Ch. 9 - Specify the electron-pair and molecular geometry...Ch. 9 - Specify the electron-pair and molecular geometry...Ch. 9 - What hybrid orbital set is used by each of the ind...Ch. 9 - What is the hybrid orbital set used by each of the...Ch. 9 - Draw the Lewis structures of the acid HPO2F2 and...Ch. 9 - Draw the Lewis structures of the arid HSO3F and...Ch. 9 - What is the hybridization of the carbon atom in...Ch. 9 - What is the hybridization of the carbon atoms in...Ch. 9 - What is the electron-pair and molecular geometry...Ch. 9 - What is the electron-pair and molecular geometry...Ch. 9 - The arrangement of groups attached to the C atoms...Ch. 9 - For each compound below, decide whether cis and...Ch. 9 - Molecular Orbital Theory (See Examples 9.49.6.)...Ch. 9 - Give the electron configurations for the ions Li2+...Ch. 9 - Calcium carbide, CaC2, contains the acetylide ion,...Ch. 9 - Platinum hexafluoride is an extremely strong...Ch. 9 - When sodium and oxygen react, one of the products...Ch. 9 - When potassium and oxygen react, one of the...Ch. 9 - Among the following, which has the shortest bond...Ch. 9 - Consider the following list of small molecules and...Ch. 9 - Assume the energy level diagram shown in Figure...Ch. 9 - The nitrosyl ion. NO+, has an interesting...Ch. 9 - These questions are not designated as to type or...Ch. 9 - What is the OSO angle and the hybrid orbital set...Ch. 9 - Sketch the resonance structures for the nitrite...Ch. 9 - Sketch the resonance structures for the nitrate...Ch. 9 - Sketch the resonance structures for the N2O...Ch. 9 - Compare the structure and bonding in CO2 and CO32...Ch. 9 - Numerous molecules are detected in deep space....Ch. 9 - Acrolein, a component of photochemical smog, has a...Ch. 9 - The organic compound below is a member of a class...Ch. 9 - The compound sketched below is acetylsalicylic...Ch. 9 - Phosphoserine is a less-common amino acid. (a)...Ch. 9 - Lactic acid is a natural compound found in sour...Ch. 9 - Cinnamaldehyde ocaus naturally in cinnamon oil....Ch. 9 - The ion Si2 was reported in a laboratory...Ch. 9 - The simple valence bond picture of O2 does not...Ch. 9 - Nitrogen, N2, can ionize to form N2+ or add an...Ch. 9 - Which of the homonuclear, diatomic molecules of...Ch. 9 - Which of the following molecules or ions are...Ch. 9 - The CN molecule has been found in interstellar...Ch. 9 - The structure of amphetamine, a stimulant, is...Ch. 9 - Menthol is used in soaps, perfumes, and foods. It...Ch. 9 - The elements of the second period from boron to...Ch. 9 - Suppose you carry out the following reaction of...Ch. 9 - Ethylene oxide is an intermediate in the...Ch. 9 - The sulfamate ion, H2NSO3, can be thought of as...Ch. 9 - The compound whose structure is shown here is...Ch. 9 - Draw the two resonance: structures that describe...Ch. 9 - Carbon dioxide (CO2), dinitrogen monoxide (N2O),...Ch. 9 - Draw the two resonance structures that describe...Ch. 9 - Draw a Lewis structure for diimide, HNNH. Then,...Ch. 9 - The following questions may use concepts from this...Ch. 9 - Consider the three fluorides BF4, SiF4, and SF4....Ch. 9 - When two amino acids react with each other, they...Ch. 9 - What is the connection between bond order, bond...Ch. 9 - When is it desirable to use MO theory rather than...Ch. 9 - Show how valence bond theory and molecular orbital...Ch. 9 - Three of the four molecular orbitals for...Ch. 9 - Lets look more closely at the process of...Ch. 9 - Borax has the molecular formula Na2B4O5(OH)4. The...Ch. 9 - A model of the organic compound allene is shown...Ch. 9 - Should the energy required to break one of the HF...Ch. 9 - Melamine is an important industrial chemical, used...Ch. 9 - Bromine forms a number of oxides of varying...Ch. 9 - The following problem is taken from the...Ch. 9 - Urea reacts with malonic acid to produce...

Additional Science Textbook Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts
Show solutions
Why should units be carried along with numbers in a calculation?

General Chemistry - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

Alcohol is a natural substance and therefore does no real damage to body tissues. T F

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

Explain why a child could need an IEP that includes nutrition services.

Nutrition Through the Life Cycle (MindTap Course List)

Characterize the paths in Figure 19.12 as isobaric, isovolumetric, isothermal, or adiabatic. For path B, Q = 0....

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)

How are seabirds different from land birds?

Oceanography: An Invitation To Marine Science, Loose-leaf Versin