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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Draw the Lewis structure for chloroform, CHCl3. What are its electron-pair and molecular geometries? What orbitals on C, H, and Cl overlap to form bonds involving these elements?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The Lewis structure for chloroform CHCl3 has to be drawn. The orbitals on C, H and Cl overlap to form bonds involving these elements in chloroform and its electron-pair and molecular geometries should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

  • Lewis structures are diagrams that represent the chemical bonding of covalently bonded molecules and coordination compounds.
  • It is also known as Lewis dot structures which represent the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.
  • The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.
  • Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.
  • Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.
  • sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.
  • sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.
  • sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons.

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations are mentioned are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Geometry of different type of molecules with respect to the number of electron pairs are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

Explanation

The Lewis structure of CHCl3 is drawn below,

images

There are four atoms bonded to the central atom carbon in CHCl3 molecule. Therefore according to the above mentioned concepts the electron pair and molecular geometry of CHCl3 are both tetrahedral.

The molecule with tetrahedral geometry possesses sp3 hybridization.

Therefore,

Each CCl bond is formed by the overlap of a sp3 hybrid orbital on the Carbon atom with a 3p orbital on a chlorine atom to form a sigma bond.

A CH sigma bond is formed by the overlap of a sp3 hybrid orbital on the carbon atom with an H atom’s 1s orbital.

images

Conclusion

The chloroform molecule (CHCl3) hybridizations, Lewis structure and molecular geometry were discussed.

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