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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

When potassium and oxygen react, one of the products obtained is potassium superoxide, KO2. The anion in this compound is the superoxide ion. O2. Write the electron configuration for this ion in molecular orbital terms, and then compare it with the electron configuration of the O2 molecule with respect to the following criteria:

  1. (a) magnetic character
  2. (b) net number of σ and π bonds
  3. (c) bond order
  4. (d) oxygen–oxygen bond length

A closed-circuit breathing apparatus that generates its own oxygen. One source of oxygen is potassium superoxide (KO2). Both carbon dioxide and moisture exhaled by the wearer into the breathing tube react with the KO2 to generate oxygen.

images

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron configuration of O2 should be written in molecular orbital term and then it has to be compared with the electronic configuration of O2 molecule with respect to the magnetic character.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

Atoms with unpaired electrons are called Paramagnetic. Paramagnetic atoms are attracted to a magnet.

Atoms with paired electrons are called diamagnetic. Diamagnetic atoms are repelled by  a magnet.

Explanation

O2 ion has 17 electrons and its electronic configuration in term of MO theory can be written as follows,

(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)3 

O2 molecule has 16 electrons and its electronic configuration in term of MO theory ca

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron configuration of O2 should be written in molecular orbital term and then it has to be compared with the electronic configuration of O2 molecule with respect to the net number of σandπ  bonds.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

Lewis structures are diagrams that represent the chemical bonding of covalently bonded molecules and coordination compounds.

It is also known as Lewis dot structures which represent the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.

The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Sigma (σ) bonds are the bonds in which shared hybrid orbital’s electron density are concentrated along the internuclear axis.

Pi (π) bonds are the bonds in which shared unhybridized orbital’s (p, d, etc) electron density are concentrated in above and below of the plane of the molecule.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron configuration of O2 should be written in molecular orbital term and then it has to be compared with the electronic configuration of O2 molecule with respect to the bond order.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron configuration of O2 should be written in molecular orbital term and then it has to be compared with the electronic configuration of O2 molecule with respect to the oxygen-oxygen bond length.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

Bond length is inversely proportional to the bond order.

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