BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The nitrosyl ion. NO+, has an interesting chemistry.

Assume the molecular orbital diagram shown in Figure 9.16 applies to NO+.

  1. (a) Is NO+ diamagnetic or paramagnetic? If paramagnetic, how many unpaired electrons does it have?
  2. (b) What is the highest-energy molecular orbital (HOMO) occupied by electrons?
  3. (c) What is the nitrogen-oxygen bond order?
  4. (d) Is the N–O bond in NO* stronger or weaker than the bond in NO?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be checked that whether the given molecule is diamagnetic or paramagnetic in nature.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

According to this theory there are two types of orbitals,

  1. (1) Bonding orbitals
  2. (2) Antibonding orbitals

Electrons in molecules are filled in accordance with the energy; the anti-bonding orbital has more energy than the bonding orbitals.

The electronic configuration of oxygen molecule O2 can be represented as follows,

(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)2 

The * represent the antibonding orbital

Atoms with unpaired electrons are called Paramagnetic. Paramagnetic atoms are attracted to a magnet.

Atoms with paired electrons are called diamagnetic. Diamagnetic atoms are repelled by  a magnet

Explanation

There are 14 electrons in NO+ ion.

In accordance with the MO theory, the electron configuration of this molecule can be written as follows,

(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2( π2p)4(σ2p)2

The molecular Orbital diagram for the given molecule can be drawn as follows,

  σ*2p(Antibondingelectrons)π*2pπ*2p2px2py2pz2px2py2pzσ2p(Bondingelectrons)x

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) in the given molecule chlorine monoxide NO+ should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

According to this theory there are two types of orbitals,

  1. (1) Bonding orbitals
  2. (2) Antibonding orbitals

Electrons in molecules are filled in accordance with the energy; the anti-bonding orbital has more energy than the bonding orbitals.

The electronic configuration of oxygen molecule O2 can be represented as follows,

(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)2 

The * represent the antibonding orbital

HOMO and LUMO: This terms are stands for highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), respectively. So this energy difference between the HOMO and LUMO is termed the HOMO–LUMO gap.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Nitrogen – oxygen bond order in the molecule NO+ has to be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

According to this theory there are two types of orbitals,

  1. (1) Bonding orbitals
  2. (2) Antibonding orbitals

Electrons in molecules are filled in accordance with the energy; the anti-bonding orbital has more energy than the bonding orbitals.

The electronic configuration of oxygen molecule O2 can be represented as follows,

(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)2 

The * represent the antibonding orbital

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be checked that whether the NO bond in NO+ stronger or weaker than the bond in NO  

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

According to this theory there are two types of orbitals,

  1. (1) Bonding orbitals
  2. (2) Antibonding orbitals

Electrons in molecules are filled in accordance with the energy; the anti-bonding orbital has more energy than the bonding orbitals.

The electronic configuration of oxygen molecule O2 can be represented as follows,

(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)2 

The * represent the antibonding orbital

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

Bond strength is directly proportional to bond order value.

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Additional Science Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts

Show solutions add

What is the difference between a molecular formula and a structural formula?

General Chemistry - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

T-cells are immune cells that "read" and "remember" chemical messages to identify future invaders. T F

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

Describe diffusion in terms or entropy.

Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life (MindTap Course List)

Why is it difficult to detect planets orbiting other stars?

Horizons: Exploring the Universe (MindTap Course List)

7 Draw a Fischer projection for a D-2-ketoheptose.

Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry

Balancing carefully, three boys inch out onto a horizontal tree branch above a pond, each planning to dive in s...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)

Describe diffusion in terms or entropy.

Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life (MindTap Course List)