It should be checked that whether the given molecule is diamagnetic or paramagnetic in nature. Concept Introduction: Molecular orbital (MO) theory: is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule. According to this theory there are two types of orbitals, (1) Bonding orbitals (2) Antibonding orbitals Electrons in molecules are filled in accordance with the energy; the anti-bonding orbital has more energy than the bonding orbitals. The electronic configuration of oxygen molecule O 2 can be represented as follows, ( σ 1s ) 2 ( σ* 1s ) 2 ( σ 2s ) 2 ( σ* 2s ) 2 ( σ 2p ) 2 ( π 2p ) 4 ( π * 2p ) 2 The * represent the antibonding orbital Atoms with unpaired electrons are called Paramagnetic . Paramagnetic atoms are attracted to a magnet. Atoms with paired electrons are called diamagnetic . Diamagnetic atoms are repelled by a magnet

BuyFind

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
BuyFind

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

Solutions

Chapter 9, Problem 28PS

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be checked that whether the given molecule is diamagnetic or paramagnetic in nature.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

According to this theory there are two types of orbitals,

  1. (1) Bonding orbitals
  2. (2) Antibonding orbitals

Electrons in molecules are filled in accordance with the energy; the anti-bonding orbital has more energy than the bonding orbitals.

The electronic configuration of oxygen molecule O2 can be represented as follows,

(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)2 

The * represent the antibonding orbital

Atoms with unpaired electrons are called Paramagnetic. Paramagnetic atoms are attracted to a magnet.

Atoms with paired electrons are called diamagnetic. Diamagnetic atoms are repelled by  a magnet

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) in the given molecule chlorine monoxide NO+ should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

According to this theory there are two types of orbitals,

  1. (1) Bonding orbitals
  2. (2) Antibonding orbitals

Electrons in molecules are filled in accordance with the energy; the anti-bonding orbital has more energy than the bonding orbitals.

The electronic configuration of oxygen molecule O2 can be represented as follows,

(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)2 

The * represent the antibonding orbital

HOMO and LUMO: This terms are stands for highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), respectively. So this energy difference between the HOMO and LUMO is termed the HOMO–LUMO gap.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Nitrogen – oxygen bond order in the molecule NO+ has to be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

According to this theory there are two types of orbitals,

  1. (1) Bonding orbitals
  2. (2) Antibonding orbitals

Electrons in molecules are filled in accordance with the energy; the anti-bonding orbital has more energy than the bonding orbitals.

The electronic configuration of oxygen molecule O2 can be represented as follows,

(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)2 

The * represent the antibonding orbital

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be checked that whether the NO bond in NO+ stronger or weaker than the bond in NO  

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

According to this theory there are two types of orbitals,

  1. (1) Bonding orbitals
  2. (2) Antibonding orbitals

Electrons in molecules are filled in accordance with the energy; the anti-bonding orbital has more energy than the bonding orbitals.

The electronic configuration of oxygen molecule O2 can be represented as follows,

(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)2 

The * represent the antibonding orbital

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

Bond strength is directly proportional to bond order value.

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