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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Sketch the resonance structures for the nitrite ion, NO2. Describe the electron-pair and molecular geometries of the ion. From these geometries, decide on the O—M—O bond angle, the average NO bond order, and the N atom hybridization.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The resonance structure, hybridization and molecular geometry should be determined and explained for the given nitrate ion (NO2). From the geometry the bond angle in ONO  has to be determined. The average NO bond order and nitrogen’s hybridization should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.

Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.

sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.

sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.

sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons.

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations are mentioned are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Geometry of different type of molecules with respect to the number of electron pairs are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

VSEPR Theory:

As the name itself indicates that the basis for this theory is the electron pair that is bonded electron present in either single or double bonds or lone pair electrons, present in the valence shell tends to repel each other which then tends to be in position in order to minimize the repulsions.

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

Explanation

Resonance structure of nitrate ions is shown below.

    

The hybridization of nitrate (NO2) ions molecule

  1. 1. The NO2 ion (N, O) two atoms are connected with together, than two atoms are linked to nitrogen atom. The single (N) atom has attached for two oxygen  atoms and also one single oxygen atom directly attached for same central carbon atom
  2. 2. Let us consider the Lewis structure for the molecule. The electron-pair geometry around and nitrogen is attached to the N, O atoms.

    The oxygen (O) atom has four half-filled sp2 orbital and one filled with a lone pair, and electronic configuration method shown below.

    Atomic number of oxygen (O)=1s22s22p4Filledoneloanpair

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