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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Sketch the resonance structures for the nitrate ion, NO3. Is the hybridization of the N atom the same or different in each structure? Describe the orbitals involved in bond formation by the central N atom.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The resonance structures, hybridization and molecular geometry should be determined and explained for the given nitrate ion (NO3). The orbitals involved in bond formation by the central nitrogen atom have to be determined also.

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.

Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.

sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.

sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.

sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations are mentioned are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Geometry of different type of molecules with respect to the number of electron pairs are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

VSEPR Theory:

As the name itself indicates that the basis for this theory is the electron pair that is bonded electron present in either single or double bonds or lone pair electrons, present in the valence shell tends to repel each other which then tend to be in position in order to minimize the repulsions.

Explanation

There are three resonance structures for nitrate NO3ions it depends which oxygen and chose to be double bonded to the nitrogen atom this ions resonance images are shown below.

Resonance structure of nitrate ions

The hybridization of nitrate (NO3) ions molecule

  1. 1. The NO3 ion (N, O) two atoms are connected with together, than two atoms are linked to nitrogen atom. The single (N) atom has attached for two oxygen  atoms and also one single oxygen atom directly attached for same central carbon atom
  2. 2. Let us consider the Lewis structure for the molecule. The electron-pair geometry around and carbon is attached to the N, O atoms.

    The oxygen (O) atom has four half-filled sp2 orbital and one filled with a two pair, and electronic configuration method shown below.

    Atomic number of oxygen (O)=1s22s22p4Filledoneloanpair1s22s22p41s22s22p4

    The nitrogen (N) atom has two half-filled sp2 orbital and one filled with a lone pair, and electronic configuration method shown below

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