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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Compare the structure and bonding in CO2 and CO32– with regard to the O—C—O bond angle, the CO bond order, and the C atom hybridization.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The structure and bonding in CO2andCO32 should be determined with regard to the OCO bond angle, the CO bond order, and the C atom hybridization.

Concept Introduction:

Valance bond (VBT) theory: This theory explain a chemical bonding theory that explains the bonding between two atoms is caused by the overlap of half-filled atomic orbitals. The two atoms share each other's unpaired electron to form a filled orbital to form a hybrid orbital and bond together.

Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.

Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.

sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.

sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.

sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons.

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations are mentioned are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Geometry of different type of molecules with respect to the number of electron pairs are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

VSEPR Theory:

As the name itself indicates that the basis for this theory is the electron pair that is bonded electron present in either single or double bonds or lone pair electrons, present in the valence shell tends to repel each other which then tends to be in position in order to minimize the repulsions.

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

Explanation

The electron dot structure for given molecules CO2andCO32 are shown below.

Molecular orbital geometry for the given four molecules

Analyzing the molecules CO2andCO32

In the given molecules CO2andCO32 are two, three electron pairs surrounding the central atom of carbon (C) in each of these ions, and electrons-pair geometry for these two molecules are tetrahedral and linear. So these molecules sp2 and sp3 hybridization for the central atom is used to describing the bonding.

Bond angle

The (CO2) molecule has linear its corresponding bond angel (1800) (Figure1). Than CO32- ions bond angle 120 degree (Figure 2) trigonal

 

Calculation of bond order for CO2 molecule

The CO2 molecule obeyed for diatomic molecule so this molecule totally have 16 electrons, the 8 electrons are bonding and 8 electrons antibonding, so this molecule bond order has four

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