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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Numerous molecules are detected in deep space. Three of them are illustrated here.

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(a) Are these compounds isomers?

(b) Indicate the hybridization of each C atom in each molecule.

(c) What is the value of the H—C—H angle in each of the three molecules?

(d) Which of these molecules is/are polar?

(e) Which molecule should have the strongest carbon-carbon bond? The strongest carbon-oxygen bond?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Following question regards to the three given molecule should be answered.

  1. (a) Check whether the compounds are isomers or not.
  2. (b) Hybridization of each carbon atom in each molecule should be indicated.
  3. (c) The value of HCH angle in the three molecule should be determined
  4. (d) Molecules which having polar nature should be identified.
  5. (e) The molecules which have the strongest carbon-carbon and carbon-oxygen bond should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Isomer: The molecule has same molecular formula and attached for different functional groups it is called isomers.

Cis Isomer: The two groups presence of same side (Like methyl, ethyl) in respective molecules or atoms it is called cis isomer this type molecule has polar nature.

Trans isomer: The two groups are attached for opposite sides of the carbon-carbon double bond, so this isomer trans isomer are trans alkene, further this type of isomer does not have polar nature.

Hybridization:  When the atomic orbitals mix to form new atomic orbitals, the new orbitals have the same total electron capacity as the old ones. The properties and energies of the new, hybridized orbitals are an 'average' of the original unhybridized orbitals.

Valance bond (VBT) theory:  Valence bond theory is a chemical bonding theory that explains the bonding between two atoms is caused by the overlap of half-filled atomic orbitals. The two atoms share each other's unpaired electron to form a filled orbital to form a hybrid orbital and bond together.

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationGeometryBondangleAX2spLinear180°AX3,AX2Bsp2Trigonalplanar120°AX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp3Tetrahedral109.5°AX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3dTrigonalbipyramidal120°,90°AX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d2Octahedral90°ACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Explanation

(a): Even the given molecules have different structures; all are isomers because all molecules have the same molecular formula (C2H4O).

 (b): The Ethylene oxide molecule (A), both carbon atoms are sp3 hybridization,

Aldehyde molecule single methyl carbons have sp3 hybridization than all other carbon atoms have sp2 hybridization, because methyl carbon only for sigma bond and aldehyde part has pi bond.

In vinyl alcohol both carbon atoms have sp2 hybridization because two carbon attached for C=C double bond

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