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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 9, Problem 3RQ
Textbook Problem
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Compare and contrast solids, liquids, and gases.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The properties of solids, liquids and gases have to be compared and contrasted.

Concept introduction:

Matter is basically classified as solid, liquid, gas. These are the terms based on the physical state of the matter. An atom is the basic and simplest unit of all the matter. Atoms do exist in the form of molecules or ions constitute matter. Depend upon the arrangement of the molecules/ions their structure, properties, certain parameters of the constituents of the matter, the nature of the forces between them, the above classification has been interpreted and accepted widely.

Explanation of Solution

Explanation

The properties of solids.

Solids have the following distinct properties:

  • Do possess definite shape and structure and volume.
  • The constituents are usually arranged in a regular and compact structure.
  • It cannot flow.
  • Solids are generally rigid.
  • Very difficult to compress.
  • The constituents vibrate in their respective positions.
  • Possess high density.
  • Intermolecular forces between the constituents are usually strong.

The nature of the intermolecular forces present between the constituents of the solid is mainly responsible for almost all the properties of the solids. Solids have strong intermolecular forces than liquids and gases because the constituents are compactly fixed and arranged in their respective spaces. Due to this, they have definite shape and volume and cannot flow and have high density. Solids are rigid and very difficult to compress that a high energy is required to break the intermolecular forces between the constituents.

Solids do have compact structure and it results in the sustainability of the strong intermolecular forces which are responsible for its rigidity, definite shape and volume.

The properties of liquids.

Liquids have the following distinct properties:

  • Do not possess definite shape and volume.
  • Assumes the shape and volume of the container and it occupies.
  • The constituents are randomly arranged.
  • Liquids do flow.
  • The constituents do move around each other.
  • Not easily compressible.
  • Possess medium density.
  • Intermolecular interactions are not stronger than those of solids.

The molecules in the liquid are randomly arranged that the intermolecular forces present between the molecules are not strong than that of solids. Because of this, liquids can flow, possess medium density and they are not rigid. Liquids cannot have definite shape and volume because of its ability to flow. Thus it takes the shape and volume of the container it occupies. Liquids are not easily compressible because of the intermolecular forces present in it.

                    Liquids do not have compact structure and it results in the random movement of its constituents. Because of this they have indefinite shape and volume, weaker intermolecular forces than that of solids and the ability to flow.

Properties of gases.

Gases have the following distinct properties:

  • Do not possess definite shape and volume.
  • Assumes the shape and volume of the container and it occupies.
  • The constituents have very random movement in all directions...

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Chapter 9 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 9 - It is possible to balance a paper clip on the...Ch. 9 - Consider a sealed container half-filled with...Ch. 9 - Explain the following: You add 100 mL water to a...Ch. 9 - Is it possible for the dispersion forces in a...Ch. 9 - Does the nature of intermolecular forces change...Ch. 9 - Why do liquids have a vapor pressure? Do all...Ch. 9 - Water in an open beaker evaporates over time. As...Ch. 9 - What is the vapor pressure of water at 100C? How...Ch. 9 - Refer to Fig. 9-41. 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F2, NaF, and HF....Ch. 9 - Rationalize the difference in boiling points for...Ch. 9 - Consider the following electrostatic potential...Ch. 9 - In each of the following groups of substances,...Ch. 9 - In each of the following groups of substances,...Ch. 9 - The shape of the meniscus of water in a glass tube...Ch. 9 - Explain why water forms into beads on a waxed car...Ch. 9 - Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a syrupy liquid with a...Ch. 9 - Carbon diselenide (CSe2) is a liquid at room...Ch. 9 - X rays from a copper X-ray tube ( = 154 pm) were...Ch. 9 - The second-order diffraction (n = 2) for a gold...Ch. 9 - A topaz crystal has an interplanar spacing (d) of...Ch. 9 - X rays of wavelength 2.63 were used to analyze a...Ch. 9 - Calcium has a cubic closest packed structure as a...Ch. 9 - Nickel has a face-centered cubic unit cell. The...Ch. 9 - A certain form of lead has a cubic closest packed...Ch. 9 - Iridium (Ir) has a face-centered cubic unit cell...Ch. 9 - You are given a small bar of an unknown metal X....Ch. 9 - A metallic solid with atoms in a face-centered...Ch. 9 - Titanium metal has a body-centered cubic unit...Ch. 9 - Barium has a body-centered cubic structure. If the...Ch. 9 - The radius of gold is 144 pm, and the density is...Ch. 9 - The radius of tungsten is 137 pm and the density...Ch. 9 - What fraction of the total volume of a cubic...Ch. 9 - Iron has a density of 7.86 g/cm3 and crystallizes...Ch. 9 - Explain how doping silicon with either phosphorus...Ch. 9 - Explain how a pn junction makes an excellent...Ch. 9 - Selenium is a semiconductor used in photocopying...Ch. 9 - The Group 3A/Group 5A semiconductors are composed...Ch. 9 - The band gap in aluminum phosphide (AlP) is 2.5...Ch. 9 - An aluminum antimonide solid-state laser emits...Ch. 9 - The structures of some common crystalline...Ch. 9 - The unit cell for nickel arsenide is shown below....Ch. 9 - Cobalt fluoride crystallizes in a closest packed...Ch. 9 - The compounds Na2O, CdS, and ZrI4. all can be...Ch. 9 - What is the formula for the compound that...Ch. 9 - Assume the two-dimensional structure of an ionic...Ch. 9 - A certain metal fluoride crystallizes in such a...Ch. 9 - The structure of manganese fluoride can be...Ch. 9 - The unit cell of MgO is shown below l Does MgO...Ch. 9 - In solid KCl the smallest distance between the...Ch. 9 - The CsCl structure is a simple cubic array of...Ch. 9 - MnO has either the NaCI type structure or the CsCI...Ch. 9 - What type of solid will each of the following...Ch. 9 - What type of solid will each of the following...Ch. 9 - The memory metal, nitinol, is an alloy of nickel...Ch. 9 - Superalloys have been made of nickel and aluminum....Ch. 9 - Perovskite is a mineral containing calcium,...Ch. 9 - A mineral crystallizes in a cubic closest packed...Ch. 9 - Materials containing the elements Y, Ba, Cu, and O...Ch. 9 - The structures of another class of ceramic,...Ch. 9 - Plot the following data and determine Hvap for...Ch. 9 - From the following data for liquid nitric acid,...Ch. 9 - In Breckenridge, Colorado, the typical atmospheric...Ch. 9 - The temperature inside a pressure cooker is 115C....Ch. 9 - Carbon tetrachloride, CCI4, has a vapor pressure...Ch. 9 - Diethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3) was one of the first...Ch. 9 - A substance, X, has the following properties:...Ch. 9 - Use the heating-cooling curve below to answer the...Ch. 9 - The molar heat of fusion of sodium metal is 2.60...Ch. 9 - The molar heat of fusion of benzene (C6H6) is 9.92...Ch. 9 - What quantity of energy does it take to convert...Ch. 9 - Consider a 75.0-g sample of H2O(g) at 125C. 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