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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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Explain how one determines which reactant in a process is the limiting reactant. Does this depend only on the masses of the reactant present? Give an example of how to determine the limiting reactant by using a Before-Change-After (RCA) table with a balanced chemical equation and reactant starling amounts.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

How to determine which reactant in a process is the limiting reactant should be explained?

Concept Introduction:

To determine how much product can be formed from a given mixture of reactants, we have to look for the reactant that is limiting; the one that runs out first and thus limits the amount of product that can form. The reactant that runs out first limiting the amount of products form is called the limiting reactant or limiting reagent. To determine limiting reactant, first we should have a balanced equation. Then we include the information in Before-Change-After table.

Explanation

The reactant that runs out first limiting the amount of products form is called the limiting reactant or limiting reagent. For example:

2Al(s)      +        6HCl(aq)            2AlCl3(aq)    +      3H2(g)

If 15.0 g of each reactant is used for the above mentioned reaction, the steps for determining limiting reactant as follows.

Number of moles of Al = 15.0 g26.98 g/mol = 0.556 mol

Number of moles of HCl = 15.0 g36.458 g/mol = 0.411 mol

Possibility I: if Al runs out first

Balanced equation

2Al(s)      +        6HCl(aq)            2AlCl3(aq)    +      3H2(g)

Before

0.556 mol

0.411 mol

0 0

Change

0.556 mol

1.67 mol +0.556 mol +0

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