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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 9, Problem 45GQ
Textbook Problem
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Which of the homonuclear, diatomic molecules of the second-period elements (from Li2 to Ne2) are paramagnetic? Which have a bond order of 1? Which have a bond order of 2? Which diatomic molecule has the highest bond order?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The homo-nuclear and diatomic molecules of the second-period elements which are paramagnetic in nature and with bond order equal to one have to be identified. Also the molecules with bond order two and molecule with highest bond order have to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory: It is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

Bond order:

The bond order has defined as the net number of bonding electrons pairs linking a pair of atoms. This same concept can be applied directly to molecular orbital theory, but not bond order is defined as.

Bondorder=12NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs

Bond length of a molecule decreases with increase in bond order.

The species that contains unpaired electrons possess as paramagnetic property.

The species in which there are no unpaired electrons are termed as diamagnetic species.

Explanation of Solution

The homo-nuclear and diatomic molecules of second period areLi2,Be2,B2,C2,N2,O2,F2andNe2. Among these, molecules with paramagnetic nature, with bond order 1, with bond order 2 and molecule with highest bond order are analyzed as follows,

ConsiderLi2molecule:

The electronic configuration of Li2 is σ1s2σ1s2σ2s2

The molecule is dia-magnetic.

The Li atom four electrons in bonding orbital and two electrons available in antibonding electron so it bond order is one.

  Bondorder=12NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOsBondorder=(42)2=22=1.0

ConsiderBe2molecule:

The electronic configuration of Be2isσ1s2σ1s2σ2s2σ2s2

  Bondorder=12NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOsBondorder=(4-4)2=0

Bond order of Be2molecule is zero hence, the molecule don’t exist.

ConsiderB2molecule:

The electronic configuration of B2is σ1s2σ1s2σ2s2σ2s2π2p1xπ2p1y.

The molecule has un paired electrons and it is para magnetic.

Bond order of Boron B2molecule is shown as follows,

  Bondorder=12NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOsBondorder=(64)2=22=1.0

ConsiderC2molecule:

The electronic configuration of C2isσ1s2σ1s2σ2s2σ2s2π2p2xπ2p2y

The molecule is dia-magnetic.

Bond order of Carbon C2molecule is as follows,

  Bondorder=12NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOsBondorder=(84)2=42=2

ConsiderN2molecule:

The electronic configuration of N2isσ1s2σ1s2σ2s2σ2s2π2p2xπ2p2yσ2p2z

The molecule is dia-magnetic.

The nitrogen (N2) atoms have eight electrons available in bonding molecular orbitals and two electrons are available in antibonding molecular orbitals hence, its bond order is as shown below,

  Bondorder=12NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOsBondorder=(82)2=62=3

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Chapter 9 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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