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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Menthol is used in soaps, perfumes, and foods. It is present in the common herb mint, and it can be prepared from turpentine.

(a) What are the hybridizations used by the C atoms in the molecule?

(b) What is the approximate C—O—H bond angle?

(c) Is the molecule polar or nonpolar?

(d) Is the six-member carbon ring planar or non-planar? Explain why or why not.

images

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

 The hybridization used by the carbon atom in the given menthol molecule is to the determined.

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.

Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.

sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital. Single bonded atoms always have sp3  hybridization.

sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.

sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations are mentioned are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Geometry of different type of molecules with respect to the number of electron pairs are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

Explanation

The given structure of menthol molecule is,

\

The hybridizations of carbon atoms in menthol molecule can be determined as follows,

This molecule attached for di...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

 Approximate bond angle in COH bond in the given molecule should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.

Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.

sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital. Single bonded atoms always have sp3  hybridization.

sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.

sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations are mentioned are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationGeometryBondangleAX2spLinear180°AX3,AX2Bsp2Trigonalplanar120°AX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp3Tetrahedral109.5°AX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3dTrigonalbipyramidal120°,90°AX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d2Octahedral90°ACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Check whether the molecule is polar or non-polar.

Concept Introduction:

Polar molecule is a molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, results the molecule having a positive end and a negative end.

If a molecule contains highly electronegative and electropositive atoms then probably the molecule will be polar in nature.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Check whether the six membered carbon ring is planar or not the correct reason should be given.

Concept Introduction:

When all the atoms in a molecule lie in the same plane then it is said to be planar molecule.

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