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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The elements of the second period from boron to oxygen form compounds of the type XnE–EXm where X can be H or a halogen. Sketch possible Lewis structures for B2F4, C2H4, N2H4, and O2H2. Give the hybridizations of E in each molecule and specify approximate X—E—E bond angles.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element of the second period forms compounds of the type XnEEXn, where X can be Hydrogen or a halogen. Possible Lewis structures for B2F4,C2H4,N2H4andO2H2 should be drawn. Hybridization of second group elements in this molecules and the approximate XEE bond angle should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Lewis structures are diagrams that represent the chemical bonding of covalently bonded molecules and coordination compounds.

It is also known as Lewis dot structures which represent the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.

The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationGeometryBondangleAX2spLinear180°AX3,AX2Bsp2Trigonalplanar120°AX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp3Tetrahedral109.5°AX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3dTrigonalbipyramidal120°,90°AX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d2Octahedral90°ACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Explanation

For convenience the given molecules are designated as follows,

(a)B2F4(b)C2H4(c)N2H4(d)O2H2

The correct Lewis structures for these molecules (a-d) are shown below.

 

Molecular orbital geometry for the given four molecules (a-d)

Analyzing for molecule (a-d)

The molecule (a, b) are one, three electron pairs surround the central atoms of boron and carbon in each of these molecule, and electrons-pair geometry for these two molecules are trigonal-planner and complete planner structure. So these molecules sp2 and sp2 hybridization for the central atom is used to describing the bonding.

The molecules (c) have two set of electron pairs surround the central atom of nitrogen (N) in each of these ions, and electrons-pair geometry for this molecule (N) has trigonal-pyramidal structure. So these molecules sp3 hybridization for the central atom is used to describing the bonding.

Finally the peroxide ions (O2H2) have a bending structure and this molecule have sp3 hybridization this molecule structure has shown above

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