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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Ethylene oxide is an intermediate in the manufacture or ethylene glycol (antifreeze) and polyester polymers. More than 4 million tons are produced annually in the United States. The molecule has a three-member ring of two C atoms and an O atom.

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(a) What are the bond angles in the ring? Comment on the relation between the bond angles expected based on hybridization an d the bond angles expected for a three-member ring.

(b) Is the molecule polar? Based on the electrostatic poten1ial map shown below. where do the neg-alive and positive charges lie in the molecule?

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Polarity: It is a well separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or chemical compounds having an electrical dipole moment. Generally the polar molecules must contain polar bonds due to a different in electronegative between the bonded atoms.

The electrostatic potential map clearly to explain, the oxygen atom has more negative (δ) charge and other side has less positive (δ) charge, so this molecule is a more polar nature.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The bond angles in the ring in the given molecule should be determined. The relation between bond angle and hybridization has to be explained for the three membered ring in the ethylene oxide molecule.

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization:  When the atomic orbitals mix to form new atomic orbitals, the new orbitals have the same total electron capacity as the old ones. The properties and energies of the new, hybridized orbitals are an 'average' of the original unhybridized orbitals.

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationGeometryBondangleAX2spLinear180°AX3,AX2Bsp2Trigonalplanar120°AX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp3Tetrahedral109.5°AX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3dTrigonalbipyramidal120°,90°AX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d2Octahedral90°ACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Bond angle: The bond angle is the angle formed between three atoms at least two bonds.

Explanation

Given the epoxide molecule have two carbon atom connected with single oxygen atom the corresponding structure has shown below.

Bond angle: Given the Ethylene oxide molecule h...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Based on the given electrostatic potential map, check whether the given molecule is polar or not.

Concept Introduction:

Polar covalent bond involves an unequal sharing of electrons between two bonded atoms; it creates a partial separation of charge and a dipole moment.

Covalent bonds are polar, if there is a difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms.

Polarity: It is a well separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or chemical compounds having an electrical dipole moment. Generally the polar molecules must contain polar bonds due to a different in electronegative between the bonded atoms.

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