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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Draw the two resonance: structures that describe the bonding in the acetate ion. What is the hybridization or the carbon atom of the —CO2, group? Select one of the two resonance structures and identify the orbitals that overlap to from the bonds between carbon and the three elements attached to it.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The two possible structures of acetate ion have to be drawn. The hybridization of the carbon atoms of CO2 has to be identified. The orbitals that overlap to form bonds between carbon and the three elements attached to it have to be identified.

Concept Introduction

  • Sometimes the chemical bonding of a molecule cannot be represented using a single Lewis structure. In these cases, the chemical bonding are described by delocalization of electrons and is known as resonance.
  • All the possible resonance structures are imaginary whereas the resonance hybrid is real.
  • These structures will differ only in the arrangement of the electrons not in the relative position of the atomic nuclei.
  • Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy. Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.
  • sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.
  • sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.
  • sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.
  • Sigma (σ) bonds are the bonds in which shared hybrid orbital’s electron density are concentrated along the internuclear axis.
  • Pi (π) bonds are the bonds in which shared unhybridized orbital’s (p, d, etc) electron density are concentrated in above and below of the plane of the molecule.
Explanation
  • The two possible structures of acetate ion:

In the case of acetate, the chemical bonding of a molecule cannot be represented using a single Lewis structure. The chemical bonding are described by delocalization of electrons forming 2 possible resonance structures.

  • The hybridization of the carbon atoms of CO2_ is,

The hybridization of the carbon atoms of CO2 is sp2 hybridization where one s and two p orbital mix to form three sp2 hybridized orbitals having same energy.

  • The orbitals that overlap to form bonds are,

  

  1. 1. CC bond: In CC bond, the sp2 hybridized orbital of CO2 carbon and sp3 hybridized orbital of CH3 carbon overlap to form a σ bond

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