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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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Chapter
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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The following questions may use concepts from this and previous chapters.

59. What is the maximum number of hybrid orbitals that a carbon atom may form? What is the minimum number? Explain briefly.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The maximum and minimum number of hybrid orbitals that a carbon atom can be formed has to be identified and explained.

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization:

  • It is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.
  • Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.
  • sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.
  • sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.
  • sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.
Explanation

The carbon atom with four single bonds has sp3  hybridization and if double bond is present, then the hybridization is sp2  hybridization. Then carbon atom contain (CC) has sp  hybridization.

Thus the maximum number of hybrid orbitals a carbon atom can form is four as in the case of sp3  hybridisation

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