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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Borax has the molecular formula Na2B4O5(OH)4. The structure of the anion in this compound is shown below. What is the electron pair geometry and molecular geometry surrounding each of the boron atoms in this anion? What hybridization can be assigned to each of the boron atoms? What is the formal charge of each boron atom?

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Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron pair and molecular geometry surrounding each of the boron atoms, its hybridization and the formal charge of each boron atom has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Geometry of different type of molecules with respect to the number of electron pairs are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

A formal charge (FC) is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, irrespective of relative electronegativity by thinking that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally among atoms.

Formal charge of an atom can be determined by the given formula.

Formalcharge(FC)=(no.ofvalenceelectroninatom)12(no.ofbondingelectrons)(no.ofnon-bondingelectrons)

Explanation

Analyzing for boron atom surrounded by three electron pair

Given structure of borax molecule is,

From the structure, it is clear that the boron atom surrounded by three electron pair its geometry is trigonal planner structure, because central boron atom surrounded for three oxygen molecule, and so  central boron atom overlap for sp2 hybridization. The overall formal charge is zero, because in this trigonal planner structure there is no positive and negative ions.

The (B) Boron atom has half-filled sp2 orbital and one filled with a lone pair, and electronic configuration method shown below.

Electronic configuration of boron (B)=5[B]1s22s22p2

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