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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Specify the electron-pair and molecular geometry for each underlined atom in the following list. Describe the hybrid orbital set used by this atom in each molecule or ion.

(a) BBr3

(b) CO2

(c) CH2Cl2

(d) CO32–

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron pair and molecular geometry for the atom underlined in the given molecule has to be specified and the hybrid orbital set used by this atom in the molecule should be described.

  • B_Br3

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization:

  • It is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.
  • Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.
  • sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.
  • sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.
  • sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons.

Explanation

Here the boron atom in the given molecule B_Br3 was bonded with the three Br atoms. The “three (3)” in the B_Br3 helps to find the hybridization of the molecule and it might be sp2 hybridization

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron pair and molecular geometry for the atom underlined in the given molecule has to be specified and the hybrid orbital set used by this atom in the molecule should be described.

  • C_O2

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization:

  • It is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.
  • Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.
  • sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.
  • sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.
  • sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron pair and molecular geometry for the atom underlined in the given molecule has to be specified and the hybrid orbital set used by this atom in the molecule should be described.

  • C_H2Cl2

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization:

  • It is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.
  • Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.
  • sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.
  • sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.
  • sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron pair and molecular geometry for the atom underlined in the given molecule has to be specified and the hybrid orbital set used by this atom in the molecule should be described.

  • C_O32

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization:

  • It is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.
  • Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.
  • sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.
  • sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.
  • sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons.

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