Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243



Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 9, Problem 81E
Textbook Problem

What type of solid will each of the following substances form?

a. CO2

b. SiO2

c. Si

d. CH4

e. Ru

f. I2

g. KBr

h. H2O

i. NaOH

j. u

k. CaCO3

l. PH3

Interpretation Introduction


           The type of solid formed by the given by compounds has to be identified.

Concept introduction:

  • Solids constitute the major part of the matter in the universe. Beneath the earth as well as above the sky in our Universe, and in our everyday life, solids can be found. Solids do have such a profound significance since the beginning of the Universe and human evolution.
  • A solid is anything that is firm and stable in shape. Physics and Chemistry do provide clear cut explanation for the structure of solids. The firm and dense nature of solids is due to the strong intermolecular forces between their components.
  • On the basis of the arrangement of the components in a solid, there are two distinct types of solids - crystalline solids and amorphous solids. These two types differ in the arrangement of their respective components and so in their properties.
  • Crystalline solids have their own sub-classification. The types of solids can be summarized as follows –

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach, Chapter 9, Problem 81E

                                                              Figure 1

  • Crystalline solids have well-defined regular, compact, orderly arrangement of their components in a very long range order. They are termed as true solids.
  • Amorphous solids lack such well defined arrangement of its components thus disordered or random arrangement does exist in them. They are termed as pseudo solids orsuper cooled liquids.
  • Ionic solids, molecular solids, covalent solids and metallic solids are the types of crystalline solids. 
  • In ionic solids, ions of opposite charges are bind together by electrostatic force and are neatly stacked to form a regular and well-defined structure.
  • If molecules are arranged in such a fashion, then it is molecular solid whereas metal atoms are arranged in such a manner, it is metallic solid. Non-metal atoms held together by weak London dispersion forces form atomic solids.
  • In Covalent solids the components are atoms bonded by covalent bond repetitively and thus forms huge network form of solid. It is also known as atomic network solids. They are widely formed by group 14 elements and its compounds.
  • All these types of solids differ in their respective intramolecular as well as intermolecular forces.

Explanation of Solution

(a) CO2

                 Understand the type of bonding in CO2 and the type of solid it forms.

CO2 is a non-polar covalent compound. The intermolecular force present in non-polar compounds is London dispersion forces. It forms molecular solid.

CO2 is a symmetric molecule.  Carbon and Oxygen are doubly bonded to each other. Though polarity arises in C-O bond, due to the presence of center of symmetry in the molecule, the dipole moment raised due to polarity gets cancelled.


                                       Figure 2

Thus, it is a non-polar covalent compound. Non-polar covalent compounds form molecular solids which have weak intermolecular forces.

(b)  SiO2

        Understand the type of bonding in SiO2 and the type of solid it forms.

SiO2 is a covalent compound and possess “network” like structure. It forms covalent network solid.

Unlike Carbon, Silicon cannot form “pi bond” with oxygen in SiO2 . The covalent bond between Si-O is stronger than that of C-O . Thus, it forms a strong 3D network solid and exist as macromolecule.

(c)  Si

      Understand the type of bonding in Si and the type of solid it forms.

      Si atoms form strong covalent bond with each other. It exists as network solid.

The Si-Si covalent bond is so strong that it is formed repetitively that innumerable Si atoms are connected by this bonding. Eventually a giant like structure is formed by Silicon atoms. Thus it exists as an atomic network solid.

(d)  CH4

      Understand the type of bonding in CH4 and the type of solid it forms.

Methane is the simplest form of hydrocarbons. We are familiar with the fact that hydrocarbons are pure non-polar covalent compounds of Carbon and Hydrogen. They form molecular solids.

C-H bond is covalent and non-polar due the very less difference of electronegativity between them. Hence, methane is a non-polar covalent compound and forms molecular solid.

(e)  Ru

              Understand the type of bond and solid that Ruthenium forms.

Ruthenium is a transition metal. The bonding between Ru atoms is metallic and so it forms metallic solid.

Being in a metallic state, Ruthenium atoms form metallic bonds between each      other. So, Ruthenium forms metallic solid.

(f)  I2

              Understand the type of bonding in I2 and the type of solid it forms.

Iodine is non-metal and it forms non-polar covalent bond with its atoms. Thus, it forms molecular solid.

Being in a non-metallic state, Iodine atoms form covalent bonds between each other. The bond is non-polar and there exists weak London dispersion forces between the molecules. Thus, Iodine forms molecular solid.

(g)  KBr

              Understand the type of bonding in KBr and the type of solid it forms

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 9 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
Show all chapter solutions
Ch. 9 - It is possible to balance a paper clip on the...Ch. 9 - Consider a sealed container half-filled with...Ch. 9 - Explain the following: You add 100 mL water to a...Ch. 9 - Is it possible for the dispersion forces in a...Ch. 9 - Does the nature of intermolecular forces change...Ch. 9 - Why do liquids have a vapor pressure? Do all...Ch. 9 - Water in an open beaker evaporates over time. As...Ch. 9 - What is the vapor pressure of water at 100C? How...Ch. 9 - Refer to Fig. 9-41. Why doesnt temperature...Ch. 9 - Which are stronger, intermolecular or...Ch. 9 - Why does water evaporate?Ch. 9 - Rationalize why chalk (calcium carbonate) has a...Ch. 9 - In the diagram below, which lines represent the...Ch. 9 - Hydrogen bonding is a special case of very strong...Ch. 9 - Atoms are assumed to touch in closest packed...Ch. 9 - Define critical temperature and critical pressure....Ch. 9 - Use the kinetic molecular theory to explain why a...Ch. 9 - Will a crystalline solid or an amorphous solid...Ch. 9 - What is an alloy? Explain the differences in...Ch. 9 - Describe what is meant by a dynamic equilibrium in...Ch. 9 - How does each of the following affect the rate of...Ch. 9 - A common response to hearing that the temperature...Ch. 9 - When a person has a severe fever, one therapy used...Ch. 9 - Why is a burn from steam typically much more...Ch. 9 - When wet laundry is hung on a clothesline on a...Ch. 9 - Cake mixes and other packaged foods that require...Ch. 9 - You have three covalent compounds with three very...Ch. 9 - Compare and contrast the structures of the...Ch. 9 - Compare and contrast the structures of the...Ch. 9 - Silicon carbide (SiC) is an extremely hard...Ch. 9 - How could you tell experimentally if TiO2 is an...Ch. 9 - A common prank on college campuses is to switch...Ch. 9 - A plot of In (Pvap) versus 1/T (K) is linear with...Ch. 9 - Iodine, like most substances, exhibits only three...Ch. 9 - Identify the most important types of interparticle...Ch. 9 - Identify the most important types of interparticle...Ch. 9 - Predict which substance in each of the following...Ch. 9 - Consider the compounds CI2, HCI. F2, NaF, and HF....Ch. 9 - Rationalize the difference in boiling points for...Ch. 9 - Consider the following electrostatic potential...Ch. 9 - In each of the following groups of substances,...Ch. 9 - In each of the following groups of substances,...Ch. 9 - The shape of the meniscus of water in a glass tube...Ch. 9 - Explain why water forms into beads on a waxed car...Ch. 9 - Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a syrupy liquid with a...Ch. 9 - Carbon diselenide (CSe2) is a liquid at room...Ch. 9 - X rays from a copper X-ray tube ( = 154 pm) were...Ch. 9 - The second-order diffraction (n = 2) for a gold...Ch. 9 - A topaz crystal has an interplanar spacing (d) of...Ch. 9 - X rays of wavelength 2.63 were used to analyze a...Ch. 9 - Calcium has a cubic closest packed structure as a...Ch. 9 - Nickel has a face-centered cubic unit cell. The...Ch. 9 - A certain form of lead has a cubic closest packed...Ch. 9 - Iridium (Ir) has a face-centered cubic unit cell...Ch. 9 - You are given a small bar of an unknown metal X....Ch. 9 - A metallic solid with atoms in a face-centered...Ch. 9 - Titanium metal has a body-centered cubic unit...Ch. 9 - Barium has a body-centered cubic structure. If the...Ch. 9 - The radius of gold is 144 pm, and the density is...Ch. 9 - The radius of tungsten is 137 pm and the density...Ch. 9 - What fraction of the total volume of a cubic...Ch. 9 - Iron has a density of 7.86 g/cm3 and crystallizes...Ch. 9 - Explain how doping silicon with either phosphorus...Ch. 9 - Explain how a pn junction makes an excellent...Ch. 9 - Selenium is a semiconductor used in photocopying...Ch. 9 - The Group 3A/Group 5A semiconductors are composed...Ch. 9 - The band gap in aluminum phosphide (AlP) is 2.5...Ch. 9 - An aluminum antimonide solid-state laser emits...Ch. 9 - The structures of some common crystalline...Ch. 9 - The unit cell for nickel arsenide is shown below....Ch. 9 - Cobalt fluoride crystallizes in a closest packed...Ch. 9 - The compounds Na2O, CdS, and ZrI4. all can be...Ch. 9 - What is the formula for the compound that...Ch. 9 - Assume the two-dimensional structure of an ionic...Ch. 9 - A certain metal fluoride crystallizes in such a...Ch. 9 - The structure of manganese fluoride can be...Ch. 9 - The unit cell of MgO is shown below l Does MgO...Ch. 9 - In solid KCl the smallest distance between the...Ch. 9 - The CsCl structure is a simple cubic array of...Ch. 9 - MnO has either the NaCI type structure or the CsCI...Ch. 9 - What type of solid will each of the following...Ch. 9 - What type of solid will each of the following...Ch. 9 - The memory metal, nitinol, is an alloy of nickel...Ch. 9 - Superalloys have been made of nickel and aluminum....Ch. 9 - Perovskite is a mineral containing calcium,...Ch. 9 - A mineral crystallizes in a cubic closest packed...Ch. 9 - Materials containing the elements Y, Ba, Cu, and O...Ch. 9 - The structures of another class of ceramic,...Ch. 9 - Plot the following data and determine Hvap for...Ch. 9 - From the following data for liquid nitric acid,...Ch. 9 - In Breckenridge, Colorado, the typical atmospheric...Ch. 9 - The temperature inside a pressure cooker is 115C....Ch. 9 - Carbon tetrachloride, CCI4, has a vapor pressure...Ch. 9 - Diethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3) was one of the first...Ch. 9 - A substance, X, has the following properties:...Ch. 9 - Use the heating-cooling curve below to answer the...Ch. 9 - The molar heat of fusion of sodium metal is 2.60...Ch. 9 - The molar heat of fusion of benzene (C6H6) is 9.92...Ch. 9 - What quantity of energy does it take to convert...Ch. 9 - Consider a 75.0-g sample of H2O(g) at 125C. What...Ch. 9 - An ice cube tray contains enough water at 22.0C to...Ch. 9 - A 0.250-g chunk of sodium metal is cautiously...Ch. 9 - Consider the phase diagram given below. What...Ch. 9 - Sulfur exhibits two solid phases, rhombic and...Ch. 9 - Use the accompanying phase diagram for carbon to...Ch. 9 - Like most substances, bromine exists in one of the...Ch. 9 - The melting point of a fictional substance X is...Ch. 9 - Consider the following data for xenon: Triple...Ch. 9 - Some of the physical properties of H2O and D2O are...Ch. 9 - Rationalize the following boiling points:Ch. 9 - Consider the following vapor pressure versus...Ch. 9 - Consider the following enthalpy changes:...Ch. 9 - The unit cell for a pure xenon fluoride compound...Ch. 9 - Boron nitride (BN) exists in two forms. The first...Ch. 9 - Consider the following data concerning four...Ch. 9 - Argon has a cubic closest packed structure as a...Ch. 9 - Dry nitrogen gas is bubbled through liquid benzene...Ch. 9 - A 20.0-g sample of ice at 10.0C is mixed with...Ch. 9 - In regions with dry climates, evaporative coolers...Ch. 9 - The critical point of NH3 is 132C and 111 atm, and...Ch. 9 - Which of the following compound(s) exhibit only...Ch. 9 - Which of the following statements about...Ch. 9 - Which of the following statements is( are) true?...Ch. 9 - Aluminum has an atomic radius of 143 pm and forms...Ch. 9 - Pyrolusite is a mineral containing manganese ions...Ch. 9 - The structure of the compound K2O is best...Ch. 9 - What type of solid (network, metallic, Group 8A,...Ch. 9 - Some ice cubes at 0c with a total mass of 403 g...Ch. 9 - The enthalpy of vaporization for acetone is 32.0...Ch. 9 - Choose the statements that correctly describe the...Ch. 9 - When I mole of benzene is vaporized at a constant...Ch. 9 - You and a friend each synthesize a compound with...Ch. 9 - Using the heats of fusion and vaporization for...Ch. 9 - Consider a perfectly insulated and sealed...Ch. 9 - Consider two different organic compounds, each...Ch. 9 - Rationalize the differences in physical properties...Ch. 9 - Consider the following melting point data:...Ch. 9 - Some ionic compounds contain a mixture of...Ch. 9 - Some ionic compounds contain a mixture of...Ch. 9 - Spinel is a mineral that contains 37.9% aluminum,...Ch. 9 - Mn crystallizes in the same type of cubic unit...Ch. 9 - You are asked to help set up a historical display...Ch. 9 - Some water is placed in a sealed glass container...Ch. 9 - The molar enthalpy of vaporization of water at 373...Ch. 9 - For a simple cubic array, solve for the volume of...Ch. 9 - Rubidium chloride has the sodium chloride...Ch. 9 - A 0.132-mole sample of an unknown semiconducting...Ch. 9 - A metal burns in air at 600c under high pressure...Ch. 9 - One method of preparing elemental mercury involves...Ch. 9 - General Zod has sold Lex Luthor what Zod claims to...

Additional Science Textbook Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts
Show solutions add
Fried fish from fast-food restaurants and frozen fried fish products are often low in omega-3 and high in solid...

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

Why is the oxidation of fatty acids referred to as -oxidation?

Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, and Biochemistry

What is a major difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms?

Biology: The Dynamic Science (MindTap Course List)

In a manufacturing process, a large, cylindrical roller is used to flatten material fed beneath it. The diamete...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)

What body generates the strongest tractive forces?

Oceanography: An Invitation To Marine Science, Loose-leaf Versin