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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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For each of the following unbalanced chemical equations, suppose exactly 5.0 g of each reactant is taken. Determine which reactant is limiting, and calculate what mass of each product is expected, assuming that the limiting reactant is completely consumed.

msp;  Na ( s ) + Br 2 ( l ) NaBr ( s )

msp;  Zn ( s ) + CuSO 4 ( a q ) ZnSO 4 ( a q ) + Cu ( s )

msp;  NH 4 Cl ( a q ) + NaOH ( a q ) NH 3 ( g ) + H 2 O ( l ) + NaCl ( a q )

msp;  Fe 2 O 3 ( s ) + CO ( g ) Fe ( s ) + CO 2 ( g )

Interpretation Introduction

(a)

Interpretation:

Using Before-Change-After (BCA) tables, the limiting reactant should be determined in the given unbalanced equation, supposing that exactly 15.0 g of each reactant are taken. And mass of each product expected should be calculated assuming that the limiting reactant is completely consumed.

Concept Introduction:

To determine how much product can be formed from a given mixture of reactants, we have to look for the reactant that is limiting; the one that runs out first and thus limits the amount of product that can form. The reactant that runs out first limiting the amount of products form is called the limiting reactant or limiting reagent.

To determine limiting reactant, first we should have a balanced equation. Then we include the information in Before-Change-After table.

E.g

Balanced equation

N2       +         3H2             2NH3

Before

Change

After

Starting amounts of reactants are presented in before row. The change row represents how much of each substance reacts or is produced. The after row represents how much of each substance remain in the final reaction mixture. The ratio of the numbers in the change row has to be the same as the ratio of the coefficients in the balanced equation.

Explanation

Number of moles of Na = 5.0 g22.99 g/mol = 0.217 mol

Number of moles of Br2 = 5.0 g159.8 g/mol = 0.0313 mol

Possibility I: if Na runs out first

Balanced equation

2Na(s)      +        Br2(l)            2NaBr(s) 

Before

0.217 mol

0.0313 mol

0

Change

0.217 mol

0.109 mol

+0.217 mol

________________________________________________________

After

0

0.0777 mol

0

Interpretation Introduction

(b)

Interpretation:

Using Before-Change-After (BCA) tables, the limiting reactant should be determined in the given unbalanced equation, supposing that exactly 15.0 g of each reactant are taken. And mass of each product expected should be calculated assuming that the limiting reactant is completely consumed.

Concept Introduction:

To determine how much product can be formed from a given mixture of reactants, we have to look for the reactant that is limiting; the one that runs out first and thus limits the amount of product that can form. The reactant that runs out first limiting the amount of products form is called the limiting reactant or limiting reagent.

To determine limiting reactant, first we should have a balanced equation. Then we include the information in Before-Change-After table.

E.g

Balanced equation

N2       +         3H2             2NH3

Before

Change

After

Starting amounts of reactants are presented in before row. The change row represents how much of each substance reacts or is produced. The after row represents how much of each substance remain in the final reaction mixture. The ratio of the numbers in the change row has to be the same as the ratio of the coefficients in the balanced equation.

Interpretation Introduction

(c)

Interpretation:

Using Before-Change-After (BCA) tables, the limiting reactant should be determined in the given unbalanced equation, supposing that exactly 15.0 g of each reactant are taken. And mass of each product expected should be calculated assuming that the limiting reactant is completely consumed.

Concept Introduction:

To determine how much product can be formed from a given mixture of reactants, we have to look for the reactant that is limiting; the one that runs out first and thus limits the amount of product that can form. The reactant that runs out first limiting the amount of products form is called the limiting reactant or limiting reagent.

To determine limiting reactant, first we should have a balanced equation. Then we include the information in Before-Change-After table.

E.g

Balanced equation

N2       +         3H2             2NH3

Before

Change

After

Starting amounts of reactants are presented in before row. The change row represents how much of each substance reacts or is produced. The after row represents how much of each substance remain in the final reaction mixture. The ratio of the numbers in the change row has to be the same as the ratio of the coefficients in the balanced equation.

Interpretation Introduction

(d)

Interpretation:

Using Before-Change-After (BCA) tables, the limiting reactant should be determined in the given unbalanced equation, supposing that exactly 15.0 g of each reactant are taken. And mass of each product expected should be calculated assuming that the limiting reactant is completely consumed.

Concept Introduction:

To determine how much product can be formed from a given mixture of reactants, we have to look for the reactant that is limiting; the one that runs out first and thus limits the amount of product that can form. The reactant that runs out first limiting the amount of products form is called the limiting reactant or limiting reagent.

To determine limiting reactant, first we should have a balanced equation. Then we include the information in Before-Change-After table.

E.g

Balanced equation

N2       +         3H2             2NH3

Before

Change

After

Starting amounts of reactants are presented in before row. The change row represents how much of each substance reacts or is produced. The after row represents how much of each substance remain in the final reaction mixture. The ratio of the numbers in the change row has to be the same as the ratio of the coefficients in the balanced equation.

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