(a) Interpretation: At higher temperature rate, transition of atoms of sodium occurs from 4s to 3p state and the average wavelength of sodium due to the emission is 1139 nm. Ratio of excited state 4 seconds to ground state 3seconds needs to be calculated for acetylene- oxygen flame of 3000 o C. Concept introduction: Calculation of ratio is done by using the Boltzmann equation, given as- N j N o = g j g o exp ( − E j k T ) Where, N j = no. of ions in excited state N o = no. of ions in ground state Ej = energy difference of excited state and ground state g j = statistical weight for excited state g o = statistical weight for ground state k= Boltzmann constant T = absolute temperature Energy of atom is calculated by the following formula- E j = h c λ Where, h= Planck’s constant c = light velocity λ= wavelength Ej= energy difference

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Principles of Instrumental Analysis

7th Edition
Douglas A. Skoog + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305577213
BuyFind

Principles of Instrumental Analysis

7th Edition
Douglas A. Skoog + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305577213

Solutions

Chapter 9, Problem 9.15QAP
Interpretation Introduction

(a)

Interpretation:

At higher temperature rate, transition of atoms of sodium occurs from 4s to 3p state and the average wavelength of sodium due to the emission is 1139 nm. Ratio of excited state 4 seconds to ground state 3seconds needs to be calculated for acetylene- oxygen flame of 3000oC.

Concept introduction:

Calculation of ratio is done by using the Boltzmann equation, given as-

NjNo=gjgoexp(EjkT)

Where,

Nj = no. of ions in excited state

No = no. of ions in ground state

Ej = energy difference of excited state and ground state

gj = statistical weight for excited state

go = statistical weight for ground state

k= Boltzmann constant

T = absolute temperature

Energy of atom is calculated by the following formula-

Ej=hcλ

Where,

h= Planck’s constant

c = light velocity

λ= wavelength

Ej= energy difference

Interpretation Introduction

(b)

Interpretation:

Ratio of excited state 4s to ground state 3s needs to be calculated for an inductively coupled plasma source of 9000oC.

Concept introduction:

Calculation will be done using the following formulas-

NjNo=gjgoexp(EjkT)    ......(1)

And

Ej=hcλ    ......(2)

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