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9-38 Answer true or false. (a) Ionizing radiation refers to any radiation that interacts with neutral atoms or molecules to create positive ions. (b) Ionizing radiation creates positive ions by striking a nucleus and knocking one or more electrons from the nucleus. (c) Ionizing radiation creates positive ions by knocking one or more extranuclear electrons from a neutral atom or molecule. (d) The curie (Ci) and becquerel (Bq) are both units by which we report radiation intensity. (e) The units of a curie (Ci) are disintegrations per second (dps). (f) A microcurie Ci) is a smaller unit than a curie (Ci). (g) The intensity of radiation is inversely related to the square of the distance from the radiation source; for example, the intensity at three meters from the source is 1/9 of what it is at the source. (h) Alpha particles are the most massive and highly charged type of nuclear radiation and, therefore, are the most penetrating type of nuclear radiation. (i) Beta particles have both a smaller mass and a smaller charge than alpha particles and, there- fore, are more penetrating than alpha particles. (j) Gamma rays, with neither mass nor charge, are the least penetrating type of nuclear radiation. (k) After one half-life, the mass of a radioactive sample remaining is approximately 50% of the original mass.

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Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759
BuyFind

Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 9, Problem 9.38P
Textbook Problem

9-38 Answer true or false.

(a) Ionizing radiation refers to any radiation that interacts with neutral atoms or molecules to create positive ions.

(b) Ionizing radiation creates positive ions by striking a nucleus and knocking one or more electrons from the nucleus.

(c) Ionizing radiation creates positive ions by knocking one or more extranuclear electrons from a neutral atom or molecule.

(d) The curie (Ci) and becquerel (Bq) are both units by which we report radiation intensity.

(e) The units of a curie (Ci) are disintegrations per second (dps).

(f) A microcurie Chapter 9, Problem 9.38P, 9-38 Answer true or false. (a) Ionizing radiation refers to any radiation that interacts with Ci) is a smaller unit than a curie (Ci).

(g) The intensity of radiation is inversely related to the square of the distance from the radiation source; for example, the intensity at three meters from the source is 1/9 of what it is at the source.

(h) Alpha particles are the most massive and highly charged type of nuclear radiation and, therefore, are the most penetrating type of nuclear radiation.

(i) Beta particles have both a smaller mass and a smaller charge than alpha particles and, there- fore, are more penetrating than alpha particles.

(j) Gamma rays, with neither mass nor charge, are the least penetrating type of nuclear radiation.

(k) After one half-life, the mass of a radioactive sample remaining is approximately 50% of the original mass.

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Chapter 9 Solutions

Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
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Ch. 9 - 9-11 In each case, given the frequency, give the...Ch. 9 - 9-12 Red light has a wavelength of 650 nm. What is...Ch. 9 - 9-13 Which has the longest wavelength: (a)...Ch. 9 - 9-14 Write the symbol for a nucleus with the...Ch. 9 - 9-15 In each pair, tell which isotope is more...Ch. 9 - 9-16 Which isotope of boron is the most stable:...Ch. 9 - 9-17 Which isotope of oxygen is the most stable:...Ch. 9 - 9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority...Ch. 9 - 9-19 Samarium-151 is a beta emitter. Write an...Ch. 9 - 9-20 The following nuclei turn into new nuclei by...Ch. 9 - 9-21 Chromium-51 is used in diagnosing the...Ch. 9 - 9-22 The following nuclei decay by emitting alpha...Ch. 9 - 9-23 Curium-248 was bombarded, yielding...Ch. 9 - 9-24 Phosphorus-29 is a positron emitter. Write an...Ch. 9 - 9-25 For each of the following, write a balanced...Ch. 9 - 9-26 In the first three steps in the decay of...Ch. 9 - 9-27 What kind of emission does not result in...Ch. 9 - 9-28 Complete the following nuclear reactions. (a)...Ch. 9 - 9-29 Americium-240 is made by bombarding...Ch. 9 - 9-30 Answer true or false. (a) Half-life is the...Ch. 9 - 9-31 Iodine-125 emits gamma rays and has a...Ch. 9 - 9-32 Polonium-218, a decay product of radon-222...Ch. 9 - 9-33 A rock containing 1 mg of plutonium-239 per...Ch. 9 - 9-34 The element radium is extremely radioactive....Ch. 9 - 9-35 In what ways can we increase the rate of...Ch. 9 - 9-36 Suppose 50.0 mg of potassium-45, a beta...Ch. 9 - 9-37 A patient receives 200 mCi of iodine-131,...Ch. 9 - 9-38 Answer true or false. (a) Ionizing radiation...Ch. 9 - 9-39 If you work in a lab containing radioisotopes...Ch. 9 - 9-40 What do Geiger-Müller counters measure: (a)...Ch. 9 - 9-41 It is known that radioactivity is being...Ch. 9 - 9-42 Briefly contrast the three different units...Ch. 9 - 9-43 Does a curie (Ci) measure radiation intensity...Ch. 9 - 9-44 What property is measured with each of the...Ch. 9 - 9-45 A radioactive isotope with an activity...Ch. 9 - 9-46 Why does exposure of a hand to alpha rays not...Ch. 9 - 9-47 A certain radioisotope has an intensity of...Ch. 9 - 9-48 Assuming the same amount of absorbed...Ch. 9 - 9-49 In an accident involving radioactive...Ch. 9 - 9-50 Answer true or false. (a) Of the...Ch. 9 - 9-51 In 1986, the nuclear reactor in Chernobyl had...Ch. 9 - 9-52 Cobalt-60, with a half-life of 5.26 years, is...Ch. 9 - 9-53 Match the radioactive isotope with its proper...Ch. 9 - 9-54 Answer true or false. (a) In nuclear fusion,...Ch. 9 - 9-55 What are the products of the fusion of...Ch. 9 - 9-56 Assuming that one proton and two neutrons...Ch. 9 - 9-57 Element 109 was first prepared in 1982. A...Ch. 9 - 9-58 A new element was formed when lead-208 was...Ch. 9 - 9-59 Boron-10 is used in control rods for nuclear...Ch. 9 - 9-60 The most abundant isotope of uranium, does...Ch. 9 - 9-61 (Chemical Connections 9A) Why is it accurate...Ch. 9 - 9-62 (Chemical Connections 9A) In a recent...Ch. 9 - 9-63 (Chemical Connections 9A) Carbon-14 dating of...Ch. 9 - 9-64 (Chemical Connections 9A) The half-life of...Ch. 9 - 9-65 (Chemical Connections 9B) How does radon-222...Ch. 9 - 9-66 (Chemical Connections 9C) Why is high-energy...Ch. 9 - 9-67 (Chemical Connections 9D) How is the presence...Ch. 9 - 9-68 (Chemical Connections 9E) In a nuclear...Ch. 9 - 9-69 Phosphorus-32 is used in the medical imaging...Ch. 9 - 9-70 During the bombardment of argon-40 with...Ch. 9 - 9-71 Neon-19 and sodium-20 are positron emitters....Ch. 9 - 9-72 The half-life of nitrogen-16 is 7 seconds....Ch. 9 - 9-73 Do the curie and the becquerel measure the...Ch. 9 - 9-74 Selenium-75 has a half-life of 120.4 days, so...Ch. 9 - 9-75 Use Table 9-4 to determine the percentage of...Ch. 9 - is an alpha emitter. In its decay process, it...Ch. 9 - 9-77 Which radiation will cause more ionization,...Ch. 9 - 9-78 You have an old wristwatch that still has...Ch. 9 - 9-79 Americium-241, which is used in some smoke...Ch. 9 - 9-80 On rare occasions, a nucleus will capture a...Ch. 9 - 9-81 A patient is reported to have been irradiated...Ch. 9 - 9-82 What is the ground state of a nucleus?Ch. 9 - 9-83 Explain the following: (a) It is impossible...Ch. 9 - 9-84 Yttrium-90, which emits beta particles, is...Ch. 9 - 9-85 The half-lives of some oxygen isotopes are as...Ch. 9 - 9-86 is effective in prostate cancer therapy when...Ch. 9 - 9-87 When is bombarded with a new element and six...Ch. 9 - 9-88 Americium-241, the isotope used in smoke...Ch. 9 - 9-89 Boron-10, an effective absorber of neutrons,...Ch. 9 - 9-90 Tritium, is a beta emitter widely used as a...Ch. 9 - 9-91 Radon-222 decays to a stable nucleus by a...Ch. 9 - 9-92 Neptunium-237 decays by a series of steps to...Ch. 9 - 9-93 Thorium-232 decays by a 10-step process,...

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