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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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Consider the following unbalanced chemical equation for the combustion of pentane ( C 5 H 12 ) :

:math> C 5 H 12 ( l ) + O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 O ( l )

a 20.4-gram sample of pentane is burned in excess oxygen, what mass of water can be produced, assuming 100% yield?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

To calculate the theoretical yield of water when 20.4 g of pentane is burned completely.

Concept Introduction:

A balanced chemical equation is an equation that contains same number of atoms as well as of each element of reactants and products of reaction.

The burning of organic compounds in presence of oxygen or air which produces water and carbon dioxide with energy is said to be the combustion reaction. It is an exothermic reaction. For example the combustion reaction of ethane is following:

2 C2H6(g) + 7 O2(g)Δ4 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(g)              Reactants                         Products             

The general reaction of combustion as follows:

Organic compound + O2(g) Δ CO2 (g) + H2O (l)+energy

Mass of any substance can be calculated as follows:

Mass in gram = Number of moles×Molar mass

Number of moles can be calculated as follows;

Number of moles=mass in gmolarmass.

Explanation

Theoretical yield is also known as calculated yield. Theoretical yield is the amount of product which is theatrically calculates by the amount of limiting agent. It is the maximum amount of product which is formed in any reaction.

Other name of actual yield is observed yield. The actual yield for a reaction may be less than the theoretical yield.

The percentage yield is calculated by the actual or observed experimental yield divided by the theoretical yield and multiplied by 100.

The percentage yield can be calculates by the use of following expression:

Actual yield or given yield Theoretical yield or calculated yield ×100%   

Theoretical yield is the greatest amount of a product possible from a reaction, when assume that the reaction goes to 100% competition.

The balance combustion reaction of complete combustion of pentane is as follows:

2C5H12(g) + 21O2(g)Δ10 CO2(g) + 12 H2O(g)              Reactants                         Products             

First calculate the mole of pentane as follows:

Number of moles = amount in gmolar massNumber of moles = 20

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