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Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759
BuyFind

Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 9, Problem 9.62P
Textbook Problem

9-62 (Chemical Connections 9A) In a recent archeological dig in the Amazon region of Brazil, charcoal paintings were found in a cave. The carbon-14 content of the charcoal was one-fourth of what is found in charcoal prepared from that year's tree harvest. How long ago was the cave settled?

Expert Solution
Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

How long ago the cave was settled should be found from the C-14 ratio of the cave painting and plant harvest of the year which is given as one fourth?

Concept Introduction:

C-14 being radioactive it undergoes decay process in dead sample. From the half life of C-14 and the ratio of C-14 in dead sample to that of living sample the age of the dead sample can be calculated using first order reaction kinetics.

Explanation of Solution

Radioactive disintegration of C-14 is a first order reaction. If we consider the amount of C-14 during the cave paintings as 100% then amount of C-14 present in the cave painting when discovered was 25%

Half life of C-14 is 5730 years.

If we consider that the cave was settled t years ago and radioactive disintegration constant of C-14 as k then using first order reaction kinetics we can write that.

t=(2.303k)×log(N0N) where N0,N are initial and final atoms present in the radioactive sample i.e in the cave paintings. Now putting all the values we get,

t=(2.303k)×log(N0N)  

For first order reaction,

k=0.6932t1/2=0

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Chapter 9 Solutions

Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
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Ch. 9 - 9-11 In each case, given the frequency, give the...Ch. 9 - 9-12 Red light has a wavelength of 650 nm. What is...Ch. 9 - 9-13 Which has the longest wavelength: (a)...Ch. 9 - 9-14 Write the symbol for a nucleus with the...Ch. 9 - 9-15 In each pair, tell which isotope is more...Ch. 9 - 9-16 Which isotope of boron is the most stable:...Ch. 9 - 9-17 Which isotope of oxygen is the most stable:...Ch. 9 - 9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority...Ch. 9 - 9-19 Samarium-151 is a beta emitter. Write an...Ch. 9 - 9-20 The following nuclei turn into new nuclei by...Ch. 9 - 9-21 Chromium-51 is used in diagnosing the...Ch. 9 - 9-22 The following nuclei decay by emitting alpha...Ch. 9 - 9-23 Curium-248 was bombarded, yielding...Ch. 9 - 9-24 Phosphorus-29 is a positron emitter. Write an...Ch. 9 - 9-25 For each of the following, write a balanced...Ch. 9 - 9-26 In the first three steps in the decay of...Ch. 9 - 9-27 What kind of emission does not result in...Ch. 9 - 9-28 Complete the following nuclear reactions. (a)...Ch. 9 - 9-29 Americium-240 is made by bombarding...Ch. 9 - 9-30 Answer true or false. (a) Half-life is the...Ch. 9 - 9-31 Iodine-125 emits gamma rays and has a...Ch. 9 - 9-32 Polonium-218, a decay product of radon-222...Ch. 9 - 9-33 A rock containing 1 mg of plutonium-239 per...Ch. 9 - 9-34 The element radium is extremely radioactive....Ch. 9 - 9-35 In what ways can we increase the rate of...Ch. 9 - 9-36 Suppose 50.0 mg of potassium-45, a beta...Ch. 9 - 9-37 A patient receives 200 mCi of iodine-131,...Ch. 9 - 9-38 Answer true or false. (a) Ionizing radiation...Ch. 9 - 9-39 If you work in a lab containing radioisotopes...Ch. 9 - 9-40 What do Geiger-Müller counters measure: (a)...Ch. 9 - 9-41 It is known that radioactivity is being...Ch. 9 - 9-42 Briefly contrast the three different units...Ch. 9 - 9-43 Does a curie (Ci) measure radiation intensity...Ch. 9 - 9-44 What property is measured with each of the...Ch. 9 - 9-45 A radioactive isotope with an activity...Ch. 9 - 9-46 Why does exposure of a hand to alpha rays not...Ch. 9 - 9-47 A certain radioisotope has an intensity of...Ch. 9 - 9-48 Assuming the same amount of absorbed...Ch. 9 - 9-49 In an accident involving radioactive...Ch. 9 - 9-50 Answer true or false. (a) Of the...Ch. 9 - 9-51 In 1986, the nuclear reactor in Chernobyl had...Ch. 9 - 9-52 Cobalt-60, with a half-life of 5.26 years, is...Ch. 9 - 9-53 Match the radioactive isotope with its proper...Ch. 9 - 9-54 Answer true or false. (a) In nuclear fusion,...Ch. 9 - 9-55 What are the products of the fusion of...Ch. 9 - 9-56 Assuming that one proton and two neutrons...Ch. 9 - 9-57 Element 109 was first prepared in 1982. A...Ch. 9 - 9-58 A new element was formed when lead-208 was...Ch. 9 - 9-59 Boron-10 is used in control rods for nuclear...Ch. 9 - 9-60 The most abundant isotope of uranium, does...Ch. 9 - 9-61 (Chemical Connections 9A) Why is it accurate...Ch. 9 - 9-62 (Chemical Connections 9A) In a recent...Ch. 9 - 9-63 (Chemical Connections 9A) Carbon-14 dating of...Ch. 9 - 9-64 (Chemical Connections 9A) The half-life of...Ch. 9 - 9-65 (Chemical Connections 9B) How does radon-222...Ch. 9 - 9-66 (Chemical Connections 9C) Why is high-energy...Ch. 9 - 9-67 (Chemical Connections 9D) How is the presence...Ch. 9 - 9-68 (Chemical Connections 9E) In a nuclear...Ch. 9 - 9-69 Phosphorus-32 is used in the medical imaging...Ch. 9 - 9-70 During the bombardment of argon-40 with...Ch. 9 - 9-71 Neon-19 and sodium-20 are positron emitters....Ch. 9 - 9-72 The half-life of nitrogen-16 is 7 seconds....Ch. 9 - 9-73 Do the curie and the becquerel measure the...Ch. 9 - 9-74 Selenium-75 has a half-life of 120.4 days, so...Ch. 9 - 9-75 Use Table 9-4 to determine the percentage of...Ch. 9 - is an alpha emitter. In its decay process, it...Ch. 9 - 9-77 Which radiation will cause more ionization,...Ch. 9 - 9-78 You have an old wristwatch that still has...Ch. 9 - 9-79 Americium-241, which is used in some smoke...Ch. 9 - 9-80 On rare occasions, a nucleus will capture a...Ch. 9 - 9-81 A patient is reported to have been irradiated...Ch. 9 - 9-82 What is the ground state of a nucleus?Ch. 9 - 9-83 Explain the following: (a) It is impossible...Ch. 9 - 9-84 Yttrium-90, which emits beta particles, is...Ch. 9 - 9-85 The half-lives of some oxygen isotopes are as...Ch. 9 - 9-86 is effective in prostate cancer therapy when...Ch. 9 - 9-87 When is bombarded with a new element and six...Ch. 9 - 9-88 Americium-241, the isotope used in smoke...Ch. 9 - 9-89 Boron-10, an effective absorber of neutrons,...Ch. 9 - 9-90 Tritium, is a beta emitter widely used as a...Ch. 9 - 9-91 Radon-222 decays to a stable nucleus by a...Ch. 9 - 9-92 Neptunium-237 decays by a series of steps to...Ch. 9 - 9-93 Thorium-232 decays by a 10-step process,...

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