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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

What hybrid orbital set is used by each of the ind cated atoms in the molecules below?

(a) the carbon atoms and the oxygen atom in dimethyl ether. CH3OC3H3

(b) each carbon atom in propene

images

(c) the two carbon atoms and the nitrogen atom in the amino acid glycineimages

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hybrid orbital set used by the indicated atom in the below mentioned molecule should be determined.

  • The carbon atoms and the oxygen atom in dimethyl ether, CH3OCH3 

Concept Introduction:

  • Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.
  • Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.
  • sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.
  • sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.
  • sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons.

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations are mentioned are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Geometry of different type of molecules with respect to the number of electron pairs are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

Explanation

The given molecule dimethyl ether, CH3OCH3  can be represented as,

Three hydrogen atoms were attached to each of the carbon atoms and these carbons attached to the oxygen atom through single bond. Since the carbon atoms have four electron pairs they should possesses s

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hybrid orbital set used by the indicated atom in the below mentioned molecule should be determined.

  • Each carbon atoms in propene

    images

Concept Introduction:

  • Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.
  • Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.
  • sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.
  • sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.
  • sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons.

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Geometry of different type of molecules with respect to the number of electron pairs are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hybrid orbital set used by the indicated atom in the below mentioned molecule should be determined.

  • The two carbon atoms and the nitrogen atom in the amino acid glycine

Concept Introduction:

  • Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.
  • Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.
  • sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.
  • sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.
  • sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons.

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations are mentioned are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Geometry of different type of molecules with respect to the number of electron pairs are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB33301TrigonalplanarTrigonalpyramidalTrigonalplanarTrigonalpyramidalAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

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