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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 9, Problem 9RQ
Textbook Problem
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Define each of the following.

a. evaporation

b. condensation

c. sublimation

d. boiling

e. melting

f. enthalpy of vaporization

g. enthalpy of fusion

h. heating curve

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The following term has to be defined –

Evaporation

Concept introduction:

            Evaporation is the phenomenon involving phase change. It is the transition of liquid to vapor state. This process is applicable to liquids. Evaporation can either occur spontaneously at room temperature or by inducing changes in energy of the molecules. The liquids that evaporate spontaneously at room temperature are called volatile liquids. The liquids that do not evaporate readily and require external energy to undergo evaporation are called non-volatile liquids. It is an endothermic phenomenon.

Explanation of Solution

      There are three distinct phases of matter, viz., solid, liquid and gas. A substance that exists in one phase transits to another phase either spontaneously or with the assistance of external energy. This is called “phase change”.

       Evaporation is such a phenomenon that involves transition of molecules in liquid phase to vapor phase. It is usually accompanied by heating of the liquid in case of non-volatile liquids. In case of volatile liquids, no such external requirement is needed. Since heat is absorbed in this process, it is endothermic.

      For example, water in an open container does not evaporate in room temperature...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The following term has to be defined –

Condensation

Concept introduction:

Condensation is a process involving phase change. The molecules in vapor phase transit to liquid phase in this process releasing heat to surroundings.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The following term has to be defined –

Sublimation

Concept introduction:

            Sublimation is a process of conversion of solid molecules directly to vapor molecules. That is, direct vaporization of solid without the involvement of any intermediate phase. It is an endothermic process.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The following term has to be defined –

Boiling

Concept introduction:

        Boiling is the applicable to liquids and an endothermic process. It is a process used to vaporize a liquid. It is familiar that evaporation is accompanied by heating the liquid to boil.

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The following term has to be defined –

Melting

Concept introduction:

            Melting is the process applicable to solids and it is an endothermic process. Solid converts to liquid during melting.

(f)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The following term has to be defined –

Enthalpy of vaporization

Concept introduction:

            The term enthalpy means heat content. Vaporization means conversion to vapor. Thus enthalpy of vaporization is the heat required by a liquid substance to convert itself completely to vapor.

(g)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The following term has to be defined –

Enthalpy of fusion

Concept introduction:

            Enthalpy of fusion is the heat required by a solid substance to convert to liquid phase.

(h)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The following term had to be defined –

Heating curve

Concept introduction:

       Heating curve is a graphical representation used to observe the heating process over a period of time.

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Chapter 9 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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