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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Identify the hybridization of each underlined atom in the following compounds and ions:

(a) B _ H 4

(b) H 2 C _ = C _ H C _ H 3

(c) BCl3

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hybridization of underlined atom in the given compound has to be identified.

  • B_H4

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization is the process of mixing of atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals. The hybrid orbitals have different energies and shape than the component atomic orbitals.

Important types of hybridizations are listed below,

sp3hybridization: It is the combination of 1-s and 3-p orbitals and thus 4sp3 hybrid orbitals are produced.

sp2hybridization: It is the combination of 1-s and 2-p orbitals and thus 3sp2 hybrid orbitals are produced

Explanation

The correct Lewis structures for given these molecules are shown below.

  

The compound BH4 does not exist as boron has only three electrons in its outermost shell (2p orbitals). So here most common compound of Boron with Hydrogen is Borane (BH3), which is sp2 hybridized. In the hybridized form BH4 exists as BH4- with sp3 hybridization.

The (B) Boron atom has half-filled sp3 orbital and one filled with a lone pair, and electronic configuration is shown below.

Boron atom ground state (B)=5[B]1s22s22p2one2selectronpromotedforp

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hybridization of underlined atom in the given compound has to be identified.

  • H2C_=C_HC_H3

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization is the process of mixing of atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals. The hybrid orbitals have different energies and shape than the component atomic orbitals.

Important types of hybridizations are listed below,

sp3hybridization: It is the combination of 1-s and 3-p orbitals and thus 4sp3 hybrid orbitals are produced. Single bonds are always having this type of hybridization.

sp2hybridization: It is the combination of 1-s and 2-p orbitals and thus 3sp2 hybrid orbitals are produced. Single bonds are always having this type of hybridization.

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hybridization of underlined atom in the given compound has to be identified.

  • B_Cl3

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization is the process of mixing of atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals. The hybrid orbitals have different energies and shape than the component atomic orbitals.

Important types of hybridizations are listed below,

sp3hybridization: It is the combination of 1-s and 3-p orbitals and thus 4sp3 hybrid orbitals are produced. Single bonds are always having this type of hybridization.

sp2hybridization: It is the combination of 1-s and 2-p orbitals and thus 3sp2 hybrid orbitals are produced. Single bonds are always having this type of hybridization.

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