Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction: Waves and Phasors 1-1 Historical Timeline 1-1.1 EM in the Classical Era 1-1.2 EM in the Modern Era 1-2 Dimensions, Units, and Notation 1-3 The Nature of Electromagnetism 1-3.1 The Gravitational Force: A Useful Analogue 1-3.2 Electric Fields 1-3.3 Magnetic Fields 1-3.4 Static and Dynamic Fields 1-4 Traveling Waves 1-4.1 Sinusoidal Waves in a Lossless Medium 1-4.2 Sinusoidal Waves in a Lossy Medium 1-5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 1-6 Review of Complex Numbers TB1 LED Lighting 1-7 Review of Phasors 1-7.1 Solution Procedure 1-7.2 Traveling Waves in the Phasor Domain TB2 Solar Cells Chapter 2 Transmission Lines 2-1 General Considerations 2-1.1 The Role of Wavelength 2-1.2 Propagation Modes 2-2 Lumped-Element Model 2-3 Transmission-Line Equations 2-4 Wave Propagation on a Transmission Line 2-5 The Lossless Microstrip Line 2-6 The Lossless Transmission Line: General Considerations 2-6.1 Voltage Reflection Coefficient 2-6.2 Standing Waves 2-7 Wave Impedance of the Lossless Line TB3 Microwave Ovens 2-8 Special Cases of the Lossless Line 2-8.1 Short-Circuited Line 2-8.2 Open-Circuited Line 2-8.3 Application of Short-Circuit/ Open-Circuit Technique 2-8.4 Lines of Length l = n?/2 2-8.5 Quarter-Wavelength Transformer 2-8.6 Matched Transmission Line: ZL = Z0 2-9 Power Flow on a Lossless Transmission Line 2-9.1 Instantaneous Power 2-9.2 Time-Average Power 2-10 The Smith Chart 2-10.1 Parametric Equations 2-10.2 Wave Impedance 2-10.3 SWR, Voltage Maxima and Minima 2-10.4 Impedance to Admittance Transformations 2-11 Impedance Matching 2-11.1 Lumped-Element Matching 2-11.2 Single-Stub Matching 2-12 Transients on Transmission Lines 2-12.1 Transient Response 2-12.2 Bounce Diagrams TB4 EM Cancer Zappers Chapter 3 Vector Analysis 3-1 Basic Laws of Vector Algebra 3-1.1 Equality of Two Vectors 3-1.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction 3-1.3 Position and Distance Vectors 3-1.4 Vector Multiplication 3-1.5 Scalar and Vector Triple Products 3-2 Orthogonal Coordinate Systems 3-2.1 Cartesian Coordinates 3-2.2 Cylindrical Coordinates 3-2.3 Spherical Coordinates TB5 Global Positioning System 3-3 Transformations between Coordinate Systems 3-3.1 Cartesian to Cylindrical Transformations 3-3.2 Cartesian to Spherical Transformations 3-3.3 Cylindrical to Spherical Transformations 3-3.4 Distance between Two Points 3-4 Gradient of a Scalar Field 3-4.1 Gradient Operator in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates 3-4.2 Properties of the Gradient Operator 3-5 Divergence of a Vector Field TB6 X-Ray Computed Tomography 3-6 Curl of a Vector Field 3-6.1 Vector Identities Involving the Curl 3-6.2 Stokes’s Theorem 3-7 Laplacian Operator Chapter 4 Electrostatics 4-1 Maxwell’s Equations 4-2 Charge and Current Distributions 4-2.1 Charge Densities 4-2.2 Current Density 4-3 Coulomb’s Law 4-3.1 Electric Field due to Multiple Point Charges 4-3.2 Electric Field due to a Charge Distribution 4-4 Gauss’s Law 4-5 Electric Scalar Potential 4-5.1 Electric Potential as a Function of Electric Field 4-5.2 Electric Potential Due to Point Charges 4-5.3 Electric Potential Due to Continuous Distributions 4-5.4 Electric Field as a Function of Electric Potential 4-5.5 Poisson’s Equation 4-6 Conductors 4-6.1 Drift Velocity 4-6.2 Resistance 4-6.3 Joule’s Law TB7 Resistive Sensors 4-7 Dielectrics 4-7.1 Polarization Field 4-7.2 Dielectric Breakdown 4-8 Electric Boundary Conditions 4-8.1 Dielectric-Conductor Boundary 4-8.2 Conductor-Conductor Boundary 4-9 Capacitance 4-10 Electrostatic Potential Energy TB8 Supercapacitors as Batteries 4-11 Image Method TB9 Capacitive Sensors Chapter 5 Magnetostatics 5-1 Magnetic Forces and Torques 5-1.1 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor 5-1.2 Magnetic Torque on a Current-Carrying Loop 5-2 The Biot—Savart Law 5-2.1 Magnetic Field due to Surface and Volume Current Distributions 5-2.2 Magnetic Field of a Magnetic Dipole 5-2.3 Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors 5-3 Maxwell’s Magnetostatic Equations 5-3.1 Gauss’s Law for Magnetism TB10 Electromagnets 5-3.2 Amp` ere’s Law 5-4 Vector Magnetic Potential 5-5 Magnetic Properties of Materials 5-5.1 Electron Orbital and Spin Magnetic Moments 5-5.2 Magnetic Permeability 5-5.3 Magnetic Hysteresis of Ferromagnetic Materials 5-6 Magnetic Boundary Conditions 5-7 Inductance 5-7.1 Magnetic Field in a Solenoid 5-7.2 Self-Inductance 5-7.3 Mutual Inductance 5-8 Magnetic Energy TB11 Inductive Sensors Chapter 6 Maxwell’s Equations for Time-Varying Fields 6-1 Faraday’s Law 6-2 Stationary Loop in a Time-Varying Magnetic Field 6-3 The Ideal Transformer 6-4 Moving Conductor in a Static Magnetic Field 6-5 The Electromagnetic Generator 6-6 Moving Conductor in a Time-Varying Magnetic Field TB12 EMF Sensors 6-7 Displacement Current 6-8 Boundary Conditions for Electromagnetics 6-9 Charge-Current Continuity Relation 6-10 Free-Charge Dissipation in a Conductor 6-11 Electromagnetic Potentials 6-11.1 Retarded Potentials 6-11.2 Time-Harmonic Potentials Chapter 7 Plane-Wave Propagation 7-1 Time-Harmonic Fields 7-1.1 Complex Permittivity 7-1.2 Wave Equations 7-2 Plane-Wave Propagation in Lossless Media 7-2.1 Uniform Plane Waves 7-2.2 General Relation Between E and H 319 TB13 RFID Systems 7-3 Wave Polarization 7-3.1 Linear Polarization 7-3.2 Circular Polarization 7-3.3 Elliptical Polarization TB14 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) 7-4 Plane-Wave Propagation in Lossy Media 7-4.1 Low-Loss Dielectric 7-4.2 Good Conductor 7-5 Current Flow in a Good Conductor 7-6 Electromagnetic Power Density 7-6.1 Plane Wave in a Lossless Medium 7-6.2 Plane Wave in a Lossy Medium 7-6.3 Decibel Scale for Power Ratios Chapter 8 Wave Reflection and Transmission 8-1 Wave Reflection and Transmission at Normal Incidence 8-1.1 Boundary between Lossless Media 8-1.2 Transmission-Line Analogue 8-1.3 Power Flow in Lossless Media 8-1.4 Boundary between Lossy Media 8-2 Snell’s Laws 8-3 Fiber Optics TB15 Lasers 8-4 Wave Reflection and Transmission at Oblique Incidence 8-4.1 Perpendicular Polarization 8-4.2 Parallel Polarization 8-4.3 Brewster Angle 8-5 Reflectivity and Transmissivity TB16 Bar-Code Readers 8-6 Waveguides 8-7 General Relations for E and H 8-8 TM Modes in Rectangular Waveguide 8-9 TE Modes in Rectangular Waveguide 8-10 Propagation Velocities 8-11 Cavity Resonators 8-11.1 Resonant Frequency 8-11.2 Quality Factor Chapter 9 Radiation and Antennas 9-1 The Hertzian Dipole 9-1.1 Far-Field Approximation 9-1.2 Power Density 9-2 Antenna Radiation Characteristics 9-2.1 Antenna Pattern 9-2.2 Beam Dimensions 9-2.3 Antenna Directivity 9-2.4 Antenna Gain 9-2.5 Radiation Resistance 9-3 Half-Wave Dipole Antenna 9-3.1 Directivity of ?/2 Dipole 9-3.2 Radiation Resistance of ?/2 Dipole 9-3.3 Quarter-Wave Monopole Antenna 9-4 Dipole of Arbitrary Length TB17 Health Risks of EM Fields 9-5 Effective Area of a Receiving Antenna 9-6 Friis Transmission Formula 9-7 Radiation by Large-Aperture Antennas 9-8 Rectangular Aperture with Uniform Aperture Distribution 9-8.1 Beamwidth 9-8.2 Directivity and Effective Area 9-9 Antenna Arrays 9-10 N-Element Array with Uniform Phase Distribution 9-11 Electronic Scanning of Arrays 9-11.1 Uniform-Amplitude Excitation 9-11.2 Array Feeding Chapter 10 Satellite Communication Systems and Radar Sensors 10-1 Satellite Communication Systems 10-2 Satellite Transponders 10-3 Communication-Link Power Budget 10-4 Antenna Beams 10-5 Radar Sensors 10-5.1 Basic Operation of a Radar System 10-5.2 Unambiguous Range 10-5.3 Range and Angular Resolutions 10-6 Target Detection 10-7 Doppler Radar 10-8 Monopulse Radar Appendix A Symbols, Quantities, Units, and Abbreviations Appendix B Material Constants of Some Common Materials Appendix C Mathematical Formulas Appendix D Answers to Selected Problems Bibliography Index

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